6. Jesus the Lamb of God, Holy and Righteous One

Audio (28:48)

'Agnus Dei' (1635-40), Francisco de Zurburan (1598-1664), oil on canvas 38 x 62 cm., Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid
'Agnus Dei' (1635-40), Francisco de Zurburan (1598-1664), oil on canvas 38 x 62 cm., Museo Nacional del Prado, Madrid

The Apostle Peter wrote:

"You were redeemed ... with the precious blood of Christ,
a lamb without blemish or defect." (1 Peter 1:18-19)

This passage capsulizes two themes we'll explore in this lesson: (1) Jesus' righteousness and holiness -- that he was without blemish or defect -- and (2) Jesus' sacrificial death for our sins, "the righteous for the unrighteous" to bring us to God (1 Peter 3:18).

Holiness and Righteousness

We'll begin by exploring Jesus' titles that relate to his holiness and righteousness. At the outset, it will help to differentiate between these two related concepts.

  1. "Righteous" is the adjective dikaios, "pertaining to being in accordance with high standards of rectitude, upright, just, fair."[86] This is how a person might describe an upstanding man or woman who lived according to the laws of God and man.
  2. "Holy," on the other hand, is a more theological descriptor, used sparingly. The adjective is hagios, "dedicated or consecrated to the service of God," or when used as a substantive, the word means simply "the holy (thing or person)." This word is used to describe the temple, angels, Christ, and God himself. God's people are called "saints" or "holy ones."[87]

Absolute Goodness

 We'll start with the concept of righteousness. The rich young ruler meets Jesus desiring eternal life.

"'Good teacher,' he asked, 'what must I do to inherit eternal life?'
'Why do you call me good?' Jesus answered. 'No one is good -- except God alone.'" (Mark 10:17-18; cf. Luke 18:18)[88]

The young man was using "good" loosely, with mild flattery. But Jesus insisted that he see true goodness as residing in God alone. No mere man is "good" or "righteous" in an absolute sense. Jesus isn't denying his absolute "goodness" in this passage. Rather, he is forcing the rich young ruler to see him with clarity.

Jesus is affirmed as righteous at his trial before Pilate (John 19:46).

"While [Pilate] was sitting on the judgment seat, his wife sent word to him, 'Have nothing to do with that righteous man, for I have suffered much because of him today in a dream.'" (Matthew 27:19, ESV)

The word is dikaios, "righteous," which is also translated "that innocent man" (NIV, NRSV) and "that just man" (KJV).[89] The term is used again at the cross by the centurion:

"Surely this was a righteous man." (Luke 23:47, NIV)

The Righteous One

Pilate's wife and the centurion used "righteous" in the sense of innocent of charges, upstanding. However, following Christ's resurrection, the word is used by Jesus' followers with all its theological fullness -- absolute righteousness. Jesus is not merely "relatively good." He is the only Righteous One by virtue of his divinity.

Just before Stephen was stoned, he proclaimed Jesus as "the Righteous One. And now you have betrayed and murdered him" (Acts 7:52, NIV, NRSV, ESV). The KJV calls him "the Just One." Ananias declared to the newly converted Paul:

"The God of our fathers has chosen you to know his will and to see the Righteous One and to hear words from his mouth." (Acts 22:14)

KJV translates it "that Just One." After Peter and John healed the crippled beggar at the temple, Peter proclaimed to the assembled crowds:

"You disowned the Holy and Righteous One[90] and asked that a murderer be released to you." (Acts 3:14)

Jesus, the representative Man, is righteous. "He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth" (1 Peter 2:22; quoting Isaiah 53:9). He alone is worthy to die for the sins of all mankind (Revelation 5:12).

Righteous Branch

There is another theme in messianic prophecy the points to the righteousness and justice of the Messiah. We saw in Lesson 4 the "righteous branch" of David's family tree who is to come.

"'The days are coming,' declares the LORD,
'when I will raise up to David a righteous Branch,
a King who will reign wisely
and do what is just and right in the land.'" (Jeremiah 23:5)

"In those days and at that time
 I will cause a righteous Branch to spring up for David,
and he shall execute justice and righteousness in the land." (Jeremiah 33:15)

Isaiah also proclaims that his Servant "will bring justice to the nations" (Isaiah 42:1).

In Israel, the king is the ultimate Chief Justice in the land. All the hardest cases are brought to him. If the king's justice is corrupt and for sale, then his example will be followed by all the judges under him. But if he is righteous, then his kingdom will be a righteous kingdom. As we'll see in a moment, Jesus will come as the Righteous Judge over all at the end of the Age.

In the great Suffering Servant passage we'll consider later in this lesson, Jesus is called "the righteous one."

"The righteous one, my servant, shall make many righteous,
and he shall bear their iniquities." (Isaiah 53:11b)

Ironically, the Righteous One inserts himself on our behalf. He is the righteous sacrifice who takes our place to atone for our sins. He bears our sins on himself.

"For Christ died for sins once for all,
the righteous for the unrighteous,
to bring you to God." (1 Peter 3:18a)

The Apostle John urges his disciples not to sin. But then he reminds them:

"But if anyone does sin, we have an Advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the Righteous." (1 John 2:1)

Our Righteousness

Jesus is in himself the Righteous and Holy One. When he lives in us and we in him, he infuses his own righteousness into our lives.

"He is the source of your life in Christ Jesus, who became for us wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification and redemption." (1 Corinthians 1:30)

Through Jesus, as the New Israel, we will fulfill the New Covenant proclaimed by Jeremiah. And he will be given a grand title:

"In his days Judah will be saved and Israel will live in safety.
This is the name by which he will be called:
The LORD Our Righteousness." (Jeremiah 23:6)

Righteous Judge

Because Jesus is the Righteous One, he alone is fit to be our Judge on the Last Day. Israel viewed Yahweh as the Righteous Judge, Lawgiver, and King (Isaiah 33:22). Before he appointed kings to govern his people, the loose confederation of Israelite tribes were governed by judges, as described in the Books of Judges and 1 Samuel. Some of these were military leaders. But all had the role of settling the cases brought to them, a role later taken over by the king (e.g., 2 Samuel 15:1-4), as seen in King Solomon's famous decision to divide a disputed baby in half, thus revealing the true mother (1 Kings 3:16-28).

Paul calls Jesus, "the Lord, the righteous Judge" (2 Timothy 4:8), pointing to the judgment at the Last Day. We'll wait to explore further Jesus as Judge until Lesson 10.

Jesus is righteous in judicial terms; it is he who justifies us, that is, declares us righteous. He thus calls us to be righteous in our dealings -- honesty, truthfulness, fairness, etc. We must also treat the poor, the homeless, and immigrants with righteousness, because we serve a righteous Lord.

The Holy One

Now we turn to Jesus as the Holy One, the one who is sacred, who belongs to God and is set apart for his Father's purposes.

The idea of holiness draws on concepts of holiness by which God revealed himself and taught holiness to Israel. The primary lessons of God's holiness came in the wilderness after God had delivered the people out of Egypt. Yahweh appeared in fire and thunder on Mt. Sinai. When the people rebelled and turned to other gods, he disciplined them. Through the tabernacle and priesthood he taught them the importance of setting people and things apart for God's exclusive ownership and service, and thus taught the holiness of God and of his people. The wilderness was a training ground in holiness.

"Consecrate yourselves and be holy, because I am the LORD your God. Keep my decrees and follow them. I am the LORD, who makes you holy." (Leviticus 20:7-8)

This is echoed in the New Testament.

"As obedient children, do not conform to the evil desires you had when you lived in ignorance. But just as he who called you is holy, so be holy in all you do; for it is written: 'Be holy, because I am holy.'" (1 Peter 1:14-16, quoting Leviticus 11:44-45; 19:1; 20:7)

In our conduct, our words, and our thoughts, God calls us to live like his people, not like a bunch of pagans.

In the Old Testament, God is called "the Holy One of Israel" (Isaiah 41:14; 54:5). As God the Father is Holy, so is Jesus the Son. The use of "Holy One" with regard to Jesus is one indication of Jesus' deity. At the Annunciation, the angel Gabriel explains to Mary about the child she shall bear:

"The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. So the holy one to be born will be called the Son of God." (Luke 1:35)

Ironically, a demon recognizes its own uncleanness before this Holy Jesus, saying,

"I know who you are -- the Holy One of God!" (Mark 1:24b)

In the apostles' early preaching we see the phrase also, quoting Psalm 16:10, applying the passage to Jesus.

"You will not abandon me to the grave,
nor will you let your Holy One see decay." (Acts 2:27)

 Later, Peter says of Jesus:

"You disowned the Holy and Righteous One
and asked that a murderer be released to you." (Acts 3:14)

The Apostle Paul, reflecting on Jesus' work of making us holy before God, says,

"It is because of him that you are in Christ Jesus, who has become for us wisdom from God -- that is, our righteousness, holiness and redemption." (1 Corinthians 1:30)

The implications of serving a holy God for you and me is to seek to live holy lives. To do else is a mockery.

"God's solid foundation stands firm, sealed with this inscription: 'The Lord knows those who are his,' and, 'Everyone who confesses the name of the Lord must turn away from wickedness.'" (2 Timothy 2:19)

"Make every effort to live in peace with all men and to be holy; without holiness no one will see the Lord." (Hebrews 12:14)

Q1. What does Jesus' holiness and righteousness demand of our lives as his disciples? In the Parable of the Sheep and the Goats, what was the primary characteristic of the sheep vs. the goats? (Matthew 25:31-46)

The Lamb of God

Closely related to the theme of Christ's righteousness and holiness is Jesus, the perfect Sacrifice, Jesus the Lamb of God, "a lamb without blemish or defect" (1 Peter 1:19).

John the Baptist is preaching a message of repentance and baptism for the forgiveness of sins. Thousands have come to him as he is baptizing along the Jordan River. One day, John speaks about the Messiah, for whom he has been sent to prepare.

"John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, 'Look, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!'" (John 1:29)

John repeats this saying a little later (John 1:36). Let's look at this verse phrase by phrase.

  • "Lamb," the Greek noun amnos, refers to a young sheep, including at least up to one year old.[91] In the Book of Revelation we find the noun arnion, used to designate a sheep of any age.[92]
  • "Of God" can mean either "sent from God" or perhaps "owned by God." John says that Jesus is in some way like a lamb sent from or provided by God himself.
  • "Sin" is the common Greek noun harmartia. Originally it meant "to miss the mark, be mistaken." In the New Testament it occurs 173 times as a comprehensive expression of everything opposed to God.[93]
  • "Of the world" employs the Greek noun kosmos, which refers here to "humanity in general."[94]
  • "Take away" describes what the Lamb will do with sin, employing the Greek verb airō, which means generally "to lift up and move from one place to another." Here it means "to take away, remove, blot out."[95]

Animal Sacrifice

John the Baptist indicates that Jesus is the Lamb of God in some sacrificial sense, since lambs were commonly used by the Jews for sacrifices to obtain forgiveness for sin.

Nearly every culture throughout the world has employed sacrifice, usually animal sacrifice, to somehow appease the anger of the gods. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob sacrificed to God as part of their worship. God provides animal sacrifice as a way that justice can be done, that men's and women's sins can be atoned for, and that they can approach God once more.

We moderns are often repulsed by the very idea of killing an animal. The Israelites were herdsmen. Our forebears were farmers who raised and slaughtered animals. But city folk don't routinely butcher animals, drain out their blood, and cut them up. The closest many people come is cold meat in a Styrofoam tray or butcher's wrap from the market. Most of us eat meat, but we are insulated from the killing that is required.

Nevertheless, taking of any life should affect us as it affected the Israelites. The Israelites were very well aware that blood required taking of life. And taking life, even to eat, is never a trivial thing. God tells Moses:

"For the life of a creature is in the blood, and I have given it to you to make atonement for yourselves on the altar; it is the blood that makes atonement for one's life." (Leviticus 17:11)

The word translated "atonement" here is the Hebrew verb kāpar, kipper, "to make an atonement, make reconciliation, purge."[96] Our English word "atonement" comes from the Middle English "at-one-ment" or "reconciliation," which expresses the result of an atoning sacrifice. To sum up, "atonement" in Hebrew seems to mean, "to wipe clean, purge," a sacrifice that cleanses from sin.

Behold, the Lamb of God

That is the context from which John the Baptist speaks when he says, "Behold, the Lamb of God who takes away the sin of the world" (John 1:29). Jesus is greater than our analogies, of course. But there is a sense in which the metaphor of the sacrificial Lamb fits Jesus accurately, since he, as Holy and Righteous Son of God is the only one perfect and great enough to actually atone for sin and, at the same time, represent and substitute for all in this atonement -- once and for all. Look! This is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!

Throughout the New Testament we see this theme of Jesus the Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36), who is our sacrifice for sin. Some of these are used as metaphors, if not actual titles.

  • Lamb occurs numerous times in the Book of Revelation (5:6, 8; 6:16; 7:9-10, 17; 12:11; 13:8, 11; 14:1, 4; 15:3; 17:14; 19:7, 9; 21:9, 14, 22-23, 27).
  • Our Passover lamb (NIV, ESV), our paschal lamb (NRSV), our Passover (KJV, 1 Corinthians 5:7). The Greek word is pascha.[97]
  • Propitiation (KJV, ESV) Atoning Sacrifice (NIV, NRSV).[98] As we saw earlier in this lesson, John writes:

"... If anybody does sin, we have one who speaks to the Father in our defense -- Jesus Christ, the Righteous One. He is the atoning sacrifice for our sins, and not only for ours but also for the sins of the whole world." (1 John 2:1-2)

  • Fountain. Jesus is also pictured prophetically as a fountain to wash away sin.

"On that day a fountain[99] will be opened to the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem, to cleanse them from sin and impurity." (Zechariah 13:1)

Jesus as the Lamb of God is similar to Jesus as our Ransom (Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:6), except that "atoning sacrifice" is from a sacrificial vocabulary, while "ransom" is from a commercial vocabulary, especially related to the manumission of slaves. We consider Jesus as Redeemer and Ransom in Lesson 7. We considered Jesus as Mediator in Lesson 3.

Q2. (John 1:29) Why is Jesus referred to as the Lamb of God? To what degree does he take away our sins? How does he come to represent you -- as your sacrifice for sin?

Q3. (1 Corinthians 11:23-26) What is the purpose of the Lord's Supper? Why should we partake often? Why is it so easy to forget what Jesus has done for us on the cross?

Jesus the Servant

Closely related to the theme of Jesus being the sacrifice for sin, is that of Jesus as Servant of the Lord in Isaiah's so-called Servant Songs (Isaiah 42:1-4; 49:1-6; perhaps 49:7; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12). Sometimes, the servant in these passages seems to be the nation Israel (41:8; 44:1, 21; 45:4; 49:3, 6-7). But in other places it is clear that the Servant is an individual, perhaps one who represents Israel, and accomplishes God's purpose for his people.

"Here is my Servant, whom I uphold,
my chosen one in whom I delight;
I will put my Spirit on him
and he will bring justice to the nations." (Isaiah 42:1)

This is quoted in Matthew's Gospel:

"Behold, my servant whom I have chosen,
my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased." (Matthew 12:18, ESV, RSV, KJV)

This is especially clear in the Suffering Servant passage, Isaiah 52:13-53:12. For time's sake I'll quote only a portion of it. For more, see my book Lamb of God: Jesus' Atonement for Sin (JesusWalk, 2011). It is quite clear from the Gospels (especially Mark 10:45) that Jesus saw himself as the fulfillment of the Servant in Isaiah 53. Isaiah prophesies of one whom Yahweh speaks of as "my Servant" (52:13):

"He was pierced for our transgressions,
he was crushed for our iniquities;
the punishment that brought us peace was upon him,
and by his wounds we are healed.
We all, like sheep, have gone astray,
each of us has turned to his own way;
and the LORD has laid on him the iniquity of us all." (Isaiah 53:4-6)

A Servant Mentality

In one place, Jesus calls his disciples "friends" (John 15:14-15). But in the Parable of the Unworthy Servants (Luke 17:7-10), he reminds us that were are "servants," who are undeserving of special favors. Jesus had a servant mentality, epitomized by him washing his disciples feet (John 13). In Romans 15:8 he is called "a Servant of the Jews" (NIV), "Servant of/to the Circumcised" (NRSV, ESV), "Minister of the Circumcision" (KJV).

In the Garden of Gethsemane, Jesus the Man struggled with his mission to die. But ultimately he prayed the servant's prayer: "Not my will, but yours be done" (Luke 22:42b). Paul wrote:

"[He] made himself nothing,
taking the very nature of a servant,
being made in human likeness.
And being found in appearance as a man,
he humbled himself and became obedient to death --
even death on a cross!" (Philippians 2:7-8)

Obedience is what is expected of a servant, and Jesus is the Servant par excellence. He is our example in this. In Philippians 2:7, Jesus is in the nature of a Servant (NIV, ESV, KJV), Slave (NRSV, Philippians 2:7).

Q4. (Philippians 2:7-8) How are we to follow Jesus' example as the Servant? Why is humility difficult? Why is obedience hard? Where are you struggling right now to be humble and obedient?

Jesus our Priest

In the final verses of Isaiah 53, the Servant acts as a priest for his people. In addition to personally bearing their sins, he "will justify many" (Isaiah 53:11b) and "made intercession for the transgressors" (Isaiah 53:12c). He continually intercedes for us (Hebrews 7:25; Romans 8:34). And, as we saw in Lesson 3, he is our Advocate before the Father (1 John 2:1).

This theme is picked up in the New Testament Book of Hebrews, that sees Jesus as our Priest. Just as the Israelites had a high priest who presided over the sacrifices in the Tabernacle, and later, the Temple, so Jesus is our High Priest, who serves in the True Sanctuary in heaven.

"We do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who has been tempted in every way, just as we are -- yet was without sin." (Hebrews 4:15)

"We do have such a high priest, who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, and who serves in the sanctuary, the true tabernacle set up by the Lord, not by man." (Hebrews 8:1-2)

Some translations render "serves in the sanctuary" (NIV) in noun form, as "a minister of the sanctuary" (KJV, cf. NRSV, NASB), "a minister in the holy places" (ESV).

In Isaiah we see a messianic prophecy that seems to point to Jesus as "a sanctuary," though he is a stumbling stone to the rebellious Jews (Isaiah 8:14-15).

As High Priest, Jesus is also the Forerunner, who goes before us into heaven as our precursor or scout.[100]

"We have this as a sure and steadfast anchor of the soul, a hope that enters into the inner place behind the curtain, where Jesus has gone as a forerunner on our behalf, having become a high priest forever after the order of Melchizedek." (Hebrews 6:19-20, ESV)

Jesus is seen as a priest in the Order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 5:6, 10; 7:17, quoting the messianic Psalm 110:4). Melchizedek was King of Salem and priest of the Most High who led Abraham in worship (Genesis 14:18). Because Melchizedek's ancestry is not given in Genesis, the author of Hebrews sees him as a type of the Son of God (Hebrews 7:1-3).

We've covered a lot of territory in this lesson, looking at titles of Jesus' righteousness and holiness and his sacrificial death for our sins as the Lamb of God and Atoning Sacrifice.

In ourselves, we are unrighteous. As Isaiah said:

"We have all become like one who is unclean,
and all our righteous deeds are like a polluted garment." (Isaiah 64:6a)

Names and Titles of Jesus: A Discipleship Study, by Dr. Ralph F. Wilson
Also in paperback, PDF, and Kindle

We are lost. We have no hope. We cannot earn our way into God's good graces. But Jesus has become Our Righteousness. He is not only the Righteous One; he is also our Atoning Sacrifice (1 John 2:1-2).

"Christ died for sins once for all,
the Righteous for the unrighteous,
to bring you to God." (1 Peter 3:18a)

He is the one who makes us righteous at such great cost. In Lesson 7 we'll consider Jesus as our Savior and Redeemer, another way of understanding our great salvation.


Father, none of us is righteous. We are totally dependent upon your grace. Thank you for sending Jesus, the Holy and Righteous One, the Lamb of God, who takes away our sin. Infuse us with his righteousness, so that our lives might reflect holiness and righteousness on earth as it is in heaven. Thank you. In Jesus' name, we pray. Amen.

Names and Titles of Jesus

  • Good Teacher (Mark 10:17-18; Luke 18:18)
  • Righteous Man (Matthew 27:19, ESV; Luke 23:47)
  • Innocent Man (Matthew 27:19, NIV, NRSV)
  • Just Man (Matthew 27:19, KJV)
  • Righteous One (NIV, RSV, ESV, Acts 7:52; 22:14; Isaiah 53:11)
  • Just One (KJV, Acts 7:52, 22:14)
  • Righteous Branch (Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15)
  • The Righteous (1 Peter 3:18a; 1 John 2:1)
  • Our Righteousness (1 Corinthians 1:30)
  • The LORD Our Righteousness (Jeremiah 23:6)
  • Righteous Judge (2 Timothy 4:8)
  • Holy One (Luke 1:35)
  • Holy One of God (Mark 1:24b; Luke 4:34)
  • Your Holy One (Acts 2:27)
  • The Holy and Righteous One (Acts 3:14)
  • Lamb of God (John 1:29, 36)
  • Lamb without Blemish or Defect (1 Peter 1:19)
  • Lamb (often in Revelation)
  • Passover Lamb (NIV, ESV, 1 Corinthians 5:7)
  • Paschal Lamb (NRSV, 1 Corinthians 5:7)
  • Passover (KJV, 1 Corinthians 5:7)
  • Propitiation (KJV, ESV, 1 John 2:1-2)
  • Atoning Sacrifice (NIV, NRSV, 1 John 2:1-2)
  • Fountain (Zechariah 13:1)
  • Servant (Isaiah 42:1; 53:13; Matthew 12:18; NIV, ESV, KJV, Philippians 2:7)
  • Slave (NRSV, Philippians 2:7)
  • Servant of the Jews" (NIV, Romans 15:8)
  • Servant of/to the Circumcised" (NRSV, ESV, Romans 15:8)
  • Minister of the Circumcision" (KJV, Romans 15:8)
  • High Priest (Hebrews 4:15; 7:26; 8:1)
  • Minister of/in the Sanctuary (KJV, NRSV, Hebrews 8:2)
  • Minister in the Holy Places (ESV, Hebrews 8:2)
  • Sanctuary (Isaiah 8:14)
  • Priest in the Order of Melchizedek (Hebrews 5:6, 10; 6:19-20; 7:17; Psalm 110:4)
  • Forerunner (Hebrews 6:20)

Songs and Hymns

Songs in the lesson focus on titles of Jesus that relate to him as the holy and blameless sacrifice for our sins. Titles include: Righteous One, Our Righteousness, Holy One, Lamb of God, Atoning Sacrifice, Fountain, Servant, High Priest, and Forerunner.

  • "Agnus Dei" ("Worthy is the Lamb"), by Michael W. Smith (© 1990, Sony/ATV Milene Music)
  • "All Who Are Thirsty" ("Come to the Fountain"), Brenton Brown and Glenn Robertson (© 1998 Vineyard Songs (UK/Eire))
  • "Be Unto Your Name" ("Holy, Holy, Lord God Almighty, Worthy is the Lamb who was slain"), by Lynn DeShazo and Gary Sadler (© 1998 Integrity's Hosanna! Music)
  • "Before The Throne Of God Above" ("I have ... a great High Priest whose name is love"), by Charitie Lees Bancroft, Vikki Cook (© 1997 Sovereign Grace Worship )
  • "Enough" ("You're my sacrifice of greatest price ... You're my coming King"), by Chris Tomlin and Louie Giglio (© 2002 sixsteps Music)
  • "Forever" (We Sing Hallelujah ... the Lamb has overcome"), by Brian Johnson, Kari Jobe, et al. (© 2013 KAJE Songs)
  • "Give Thanks with a Grateful Heart" ("Give thanks to the Holy One"), by Henry Smith (© 1978, Integrity's Hosanna! Music)
  • "How Great Is Our God" ("The splendor of the King ... Beginning and the End ... Lion and the Lamb"), by Chris Tomlin, Ed Cash, Jesse Reeves (© 2004 sixsteps Music)
  • "I Stand in Awe" ("You are beautiful beyond description, Lamb of God who died for me"), by Mark Altrogge (© 1987 Sovereign Grace Praise)
  • "I Will Rise" ("worthy is the Lamb"), by Christ Tomlin, Jesse Reeves, Louie Giglio, Matt Maher (© 2008 sixsteps Music)
  • "Jesus, Only Jesus" (He is our hope, our righteousness ... Holy, King Almighty Lord"), by Christ Tomlin, Matt Redman, et al. (© 2013 S. D. G. Publishing)
  • "Knowing You" ("You're my joy, my Righteousness"), by Graham Kendrick (© 1994, Make Way Music)
  • "Lamb of God," by Twila Paris (© 1985, Straightway Music)
  • "Revelation Song" ("Worthy is the Lamb who was slain ... Lord God Almighty ... King of kings"), Jennie Lee Riddle (© 2004 Gateway Create Publishing)
  • "Righteous One," Bruce Muller (© 1991 Universal Music - Brentwood Benson)
  • "There is a Redeemer" ("Precious Lamb of God, Messiah") by Melody Green (© 1982 Universal Music - Brentwood Benson)
  • "We Fall Down" ("Holy, holy, holy is the Lamb"), by Chris Tomlin (© 1998, Worshiptogether.com Songs)
  • "We Will Glorify" (We will glorify the King of kings, we will glorify the Lamb"), by Twila Paris (1982 New Spring)
  • "Worthy Is the Lamb," by Darlene Zschech (© 2002, Hillsong Publishing)
  • "Worthy, You Are Worthy" ("Holy, You are Holy"), by Don Moen (© 1986, Integrity's Hosanna! Music)
  • "You Are My All in All" ("Jesus, Lamb of God, worthy is your name"), by Dennis Jernigan (© 1991, Shepherd's Heart Music, Inc.)
  • "Your Great Name" ("Worthy is the Lam that was slain for us") by Krissy Nordhoff and Michael Neele (2008, Integrity's Praise! Music)


From Appendix 6. Exercises to Help You Internalize the Names of Jesus, select some activities that will help you internalize the truths of this lesson's names, titles, descriptors, and metaphors. This week, how can you creatively pray, meditate, write, worship, consider, draw or paint, compose, picture, and live out these truths in your community?

Actively participating in these ways will help you grow to be like Christ.


[86] Dikaios, BDAG 24, 1bβ.

[87] Hagios, BDAG 11.

[88] In Matthew 19:16, the KJV "good master" adds the adjective "good" to didaskalos, to conform it to parallel accounts in other gospels. "Good" is "absent from early and good representatives of the Alexandrian and the Western texts, was manifestly brought in by copyists from the parallel accounts" (Mark 10:17; Luke 18:18) (Metzger, Textual Commentary, p. 49).

[89] Some manuscripts record the term again in Pilate's mouth (Matthew 27:24, KJV). Metzger (Textual Commentary, p. 68) notes that the words tou dikaiou don't occur "in the best representatives of the Alexandrian, Western, and Caesarean texts." He give the reading a {B} "some degree of doubt" designation.

[90] KJV: "the Holy One and the Just."

[91] Amnos, BDAG 54.

[92] Arnion, BDAG 133.

[93] Walther Günther, "Sin," NIDNTT 3:573-583.

[94] Kosmos, BDAG 562.

[95] Airō, BDAG 28. Joachim Jeremias (airō, TDNT 1:185-186) indicates that airo can refer here to either the substitutionary bearing of penalty (if the Suffering Servant of Isaiah 53 is in mind) or "the setting aside of sin by the expiatory power of the death of Jesus." Jeremias prefers the latter approach.

[96] An equivalent Arabic root means "cover" or "conceal," but evidence that the Hebrew root means "to cover over sin" is weak. Rather, the root idea of kipper seems to be "to purge," related to an Akkadian cognate kuppuru meaning "to wipe clean." Richard E. Averbeck, "Sacrifices and Offerings," DOTP 706-732, especially p. 710. R. Laird Harris, kāpar, TWOT #1023.

[97] Pascha, "the Passover," then "the Passover Lamb" (BDAG 784, 1, 2).

[98] Hilasmos, "appeasement necessitated by sin, expiation" (BDAG 474, 1).

[99] "Fountain" is māqôr, "well, spring, fountain," figuratively as a source of purification, life, and vigor (BDB 881). Because there are no actual descriptors in the scripture, we haven't listed Jesus in his other roles using the image of water. But they might be: Source of Living Water (John 4:10; Revelation 22:17).

[100] "Forerunner" is prodromos, "pertaining to being a precursor, going (lit. running) before, going ahead, a scout," from pro- "motion forward, before another who follows, in advance" (Thayer 537, dα) + trecho, "to run."

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