Jesus' Parables for Disciples
Edward Burne-Jones, Good Shepherd stained glass window (1895), Harris Manchester College, Oxford
Perhaps the simplest form of the Wonderful Story is found in John 3:16.
"For God so loved the world that he gave his one and only Son, that whoever believes in him shall not perish but have eternal life." (John 3:16))
You see, our problem is grave. Though we have been created in God's image with his goodness, yet creation is fallen. We are broken. Oh, we're pretty good most of the time, but each of us have fatal flaws that lead to sin and separation from God.
There was a time that a lot of people believed that mankind was getting better and better. Education led to their betterment and continual advance. Then came "the Great War" (World War I) to shake this belief. It was followed by the evil that spawned World War II. And we began to realize that within men and women are the seeds of our destruction. We fall short -- far short -- of God's goodness and glory (Romans 3:23). You look at the world today, with its wars and rumors of wars, and you realize that within the human heart lie deceit and pride, selfishness and violence. All we can look forward to is more separation, more heartache, more war, more hurt.
We need a Savior! The Good News, the Gospel, is that God has sent us a Savior and his name is Jesus!
The problem we couldn't solve, God came to solve for us. It cost him greatly, for he "gave his one and only Son," who was subjected to terrible torture and insult. Jesus died for our sins, and then released into us his Holy Spirit, who can change us from the inside.
Let's examine these titles of Savior, Redeemer, and Shepherd. Savior and Deliverer come from military vocabulary. Redeemer comes from the vocabulary of family law in the Old Testament, and the business of slavery in the New Testament. Shepherd is a metaphor of a Savior, reflective of the herding culture of Israel.
Like many other titles of Jesus, Savior is first used of God the Father.
"All mankind will know that I, the LORD, am
your Redeemer, the Mighty One of Jacob." (Isaiah 49:26)
Many times in the Old Testament he is referred to as "God our Savior" (NIV) or, literally, "the God of our salvation" (ESV, KJV). Indeed, in the New Testament we see "God our Savior" again and again, especially in 1 Timothy and Titus. Thus it is another sign of Jesus' divinity that the title of Savior is bestowed upon Jesus. The Greek word for "Savior" is sōtēr, from sōzō, "to preserve or rescue from natural dangers and afflictions, save, keep from harm, preserve, rescue." A Savior is a protector, a rescuer.
In Lesson 4 we considered the messianic prophecies that foretold the Messiah who would save his people. There are two prophecies of Jesus' salvation early in Luke. Zechariah prophecies:
"He has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David." (Luke 1:69)
The phrase "horn of salvation" refers to a mighty act of salvation or deliverance. NRSV translates it, "Mighty Savior." A few months later, the angels announce Jesus' birth as a Savior.
"Today in the town of David a Savior has been born to you; he is Christ the Lord." (Luke 2:11)
As we'll see, Jesus' title "the Friend of Sinners," relates to salvation. But on the lips of Jesus' enemies, the title was meant to be an insult.
"The Son of Man came eating and drinking, and they say, 'Here is a glutton and a drunkard, a friend of tax collectors and sinners.'" (Matthew 11:19)
Thank God that he is our Friend and will associate with us! We need him so desperately! Jesus went to have dinner at the house of a tax collector named Levi (Matthew):
"The Pharisees and the teachers of the law ... complained to his disciples, 'Why do you eat and drink with tax collectors and sinners?' Jesus answered them, 'It is not the healthy who need a doctor, but the sick. I have not come to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance.'" (Luke 5:30-32)
When he ate at the home Zacchaeus, the chief tax collector for the region around Jericho, Jesus explained the purpose for the visit. He is a Friend of Sinners, a Friend who saves.
"For the Son of Man came to seek and to save what was lost." (Luke 19:10)
He came to be a Savior to us who are lost without him.
Q1. (Luke 19:10; Matthew 11:19) Jesus came to seek and to
save the lost. What does it mean to you personally that Jesus is the Friend of
Sinners? How should it affect your relationships with people who are deep in
By and large, the title "Savior" has lost its meaning from overuse in the Christian community. Perhaps a better title for our generation might be Rescuer, which is one of the meanings of the noun sōtēr -- though the title Rescuer is not found in popular English Bibles. Another Greek word for "rescue, deliver," is rhyomai, "to rescue from danger, save, rescue, deliver, preserve someone" It appears once (in participle form) in a title, quoting Isaiah 59:20-21.
"The Deliverer will come from Zion;
he will turn godlessness away from Jacob.
And this is my covenant with them
when I take away their sins." (Romans 11:26-27)
When Jesus was in his hometown of Nazareth, he read from a portion of Isaiah's prophecy that laid out his mission as Savior.
"The Spirit of
the Lord is on me,
because he has anointed me
to preach good news to the poor.
He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners
and recovery of sight for the blind,
to release the oppressed,
to proclaim the year of the Lord's favor." (Luke 4:18-19, quoting Isaiah 61:1-2)
There are many examples of rhyomai, "rescue," in the New Testament. Zechariah's prophecy of the Messiah included the line:
".... to rescue us from the hand of our enemies." (Luke 1:74a)
Yes, we have enemies, sometimes dangerous ones. But as comic strip character Pogo once said, "We have found the enemy and he is us." We are our own worst enemy. There is in us a deep-rooted bent to sinning that corrupts us. Paul wrote:
"What a wretched man I am! Who will rescue me from this body of death? Thanks be to God -- through Jesus Christ our Lord!" (Romans 7:24-25a)
"Jesus, who rescues us from the coming wrath." (1 Thessalonians 1:10)
In the context of criticism over eating with sinners, Jesus told the Parable of the Lost Sheep, where the shepherd leaves his flock to search for the lost sheep and doesn't quit until he finds it (Luke 15:1-7). “Rescue" (rhyomai) is also found in the Lord's Prayer, "deliver us from evil" (Matthew 6:13).
Jesus is the One Who Rescues us from ourselves, from our sin, and from the evil one. He is our Savior..
In addition to Luke 2:11 quoted above, Savior is sometimes used absolutely, by itself.
"Our citizenship is in heaven. And we eagerly await a Savior from there, the Lord Jesus Christ." (Philippians 3:20)
"Christ is the head of the church, his body, of which he is the Savior." (Ephesians 5:23b)
Besides being used by itself, the title Savior occurs in a number of combinations:
- Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2 Peter 1:11; 2:20; 3:18; cf. 3:2).
- The Savior Jesus (Acts 13:23).
- Jesus Christ Our Savior (Titus 1:4; 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:10).
- The Savior of the World (John 4:42; 1 John 4:14).
- Prince and Savior (NIV, KJV, Acts 5:31), Leader and Savior (NRSV, ESV)
- Our Great God and Savior, Jesus Christ (Titus 2:13; 2 Peter 1:1)
A couple of other metaphors relate to Jesus our Savior:
- Arm of the Lord (Isaiah 53:1), that is, one who by his might brings about the Lord's salvation. It appears to refer to the Suffering Servant, who, as we saw in Lesson 6, refers to Jesus.
- Author of Salvation (NIV, NASB), Pioneer of Salvation (NRSV), Founder of Salvation (ESV), Captain of Salvation (KJV; Hebrews 2:10). Jesus is the originator of our salvation.
Finally, when Simeon saw Jesus in the temple at his dedication, the old prophet took him in his arms and said:
"Sovereign Lord, as you have promised,
you now dismiss your servant in peace.
For my eyes have seen your salvation,
which you have prepared in the sight of all people...." (Luke 2:29-31a)
It occurs to me that Savior is an active word. The Savior acts whether or not he hears a cry for help. He actively seeks those in need and offers rescue. Christians are sometimes criticized for always trying to evangelize, rather than keep their faith to themselves. Dear friends, we evangelize because the heart of our Savior is to seek and to save the lost. Let's never stop witnessing and evangelizing!
Q2. How are we disciples to assist in Jesus' mission to
seek and to save the lost? What is the love-balance between seeking to save our
friends and having to back off because they feel we are trying to pressure them?
Now we move from the Savior, Deliver, to a specific kind of salvation -- saving from slavery -- redemption.
We begin with Job's famous prophecy of his Redeemer, who will raise him from the dead.
"I know that my Redeemer lives,
and that in the end he will stand upon the earth.
And after my skin has been destroyed,
yet in my flesh I will see God;
I myself will see him with my own eyes --
I, and not another.
How my heart yearns within me!" (Job 19:25-27)
The Redeemer who will stand upon the earth is Jesus. Elsewhere, in Isaiah, we see this word connected with another messianic prophecy.
"The Redeemer will come to Zion,
to those in Jacob who repent of their sins." (Isaiah 59:20)
"Redeemer" in the Old Testament is a participle of the verb gā'al, "redeem, ransom, do the part of a kinsman." A kinsman had the responsibility to help his relatives in any difficulty or danger.
If a close relative lost his property to a debtor, it was the responsibility of a kinsmen to redeem it. If a relative was murdered, his kinsmen were responsible to avenge his death. If a relative was in prison or in slavery, a kinsman was obligated to pay whatever was necessary to get him released.
The Bible has a number of examples of this. For example, when Abraham's nephew Lot is taken prisoner, Abraham rescues him (Genesis 14). When Lot is threatened by the destruction of Sodom (Genesis 18-19), Abraham makes it his personal responsibility to intercede and protect his kinsman.
Probably the most endearing story in the Bible that illustrates this is the relationship between Ruth, Naomi, and Boaz (Ruth 1-4). Naomi and her husband travel to Moab during a famine. While in Moab, Naomi's husband and both of her sons die. Naomi and her daughter-in-law Ruth return as poverty-stricken widows to Naomi's home in Bethlehem. Ruth is reduced to gleaning behind the harvesters, picking up whatever stray wheat stalks are left.
"It just happens" that she is gleaning in the field of Boaz, a relative of Naomi's husband. In various translations he is called "kinsman-redeemer" (NIV), "near kinsman" (KJV), or "next-of-kin" (NRSV). Boaz loves Ruth, and takes on this role of kinsman-redeemer, not only purchasing back Naomi's dead husband's property, but also marrying Ruth to bear children to continue in his dead kinsman's line, a custom sometimes referred to as levirate marriage.
In the Psalms and the prophets there is a strong theme that God is the Kinsman-Redeemer of his people Israel. When Israel is in bondage in Egypt, God redeems them from slavery and takes them into their own land.
Consider the power of this metaphor. The invisible God has so bonded with the people of Israel that he takes on himself the role of their Kinsman. In the New Testament, God sends Jesus to become a human, identify with us and our plight, and redeem us from the power of sin. In the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as the Redeemer, no doubt carrying on the Old Testament understanding of Kinsman-Redeemer.
This was clearly Jesus' own understanding of his mission and destiny. He told his disciples:
"Whoever wants to become great among you must be your servant, and whoever wants to be first must be slave of all. For even the Son of Man did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom (lytron) for many." (Mark 10:43b-45)
"For there is one God, and there is one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom (antilytron) for all...." (1 Timothy 2:5-6)
A ransom (lytron) is the "price of release, ransom," especially the ransom money for the manumission of slaves. Very similar is the rare word antilytron, "ransom." God redeems us with his own Son as the ransom price. Jesus becomes one of us:
"Who, being in very nature God,
did not consider equality with God something to be grasped,
but made himself nothing,
taking the very nature of a servant,
being made in human likeness." (Philippians 2:6-7)
He becomes our kinsman, our brother. And by the surrender of his own flesh and blood he redeems us (Ephesians 1:7; Hebrews 9:12). He buys back his kin who have fallen so far into debt that they cannot redeem themselves -- ever.
In most English translations, the actual title Redeemer occurs only in the Old Testament, but the concept of Jesus as our Redeemer appears throughout the New Testament. For example, the men on the road to Emmaus tell their companion,
"We had hoped that he was the one who was going to redeem Israel." (Luke 24:21)
"Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law." (Galatians 3:13; cf. 3:14; 4:5).
"[He] gave himself for us to redeem us from all wickedness and to purify for himself a people that are his very own, eager to do what is good." (Titus 2:13-14)
Paul wrote that Jesus is our Redemption.
"[He] has become for us wisdom from God -- that is, our righteousness, holiness and redemption." (1 Corinthians 1:30)
The Bible uses many metaphors to convey the truth of our salvation. The metaphor of Lamb of God uses the technical terms associated with temple sacrifice. The metaphor of Redeemer use the technical terms of money paid to free someone, especially one who pays a ransom price. According to the titles from the various metaphors of Scripture, just as Jesus is both our High Priest and Atoning Sacrifice, Jesus is both our Redeemer and our Ransom.
Q3. (Mark 10:43-45)
How does Jesus serve (like Boaz) as a Kinsman-Redeemer to us? What does the idea
of needing a ransom imply about our condition? What was the redemption-price
that the Father paid for us?
You may not have looked at it this way, but the title Shepherd is a metaphor for Savior. A shepherd's role was to preserve the sheep by leading them to pasture and water, to protect the sheep by fending off predators, and to rescue the sheep that wandered off.
The title Shepherd is given to Yahweh in the beloved Psalm 23.
"The LORD is my shepherd; I shall not want." (Psalm 23:1; also Psalm 80:1)
Throughout the ancient Near East, rulers and leaders were often spoken of as shepherds of their people. The kings of Judah and Israel, were call shepherds, as well as the priests and religious leaders, who were to care for Yahweh's flock as under-shepherds. But they did not. The religious leaders in Jesus' time ignored the miracles and those who were healed, but rather sought to kill the miracle-worker. As a result, God's people suffered.
Ezekiel prophesies of the Davidic Messiah, that he will rescue Yahweh's flock.
"I will set up over them one shepherd, my servant David, and he shall feed them: he shall feed them and be their shepherd." (Ezekiel 34:23; also 37:24)
Malachi prophesied of this messianic Shepherd who would be born in Bethlehem.
"He will stand and shepherd his flock in the
strength of the LORD,
in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God.
And they will live securely,
for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth." (Micah 5:4)
In Matthew's quotation of Micah's prophecy he is called, "a ruler who will be the shepherd of my people Israel" (Matthew 2:6).
Jesus is that Shepherd.
"When he saw the crowds, he had compassion on them, because they were harassed and helpless, like sheep without a shepherd." (Matthew 9:36)
Jesus cares for his sheep, protects them and calls them by name (John 10:1-16). In contrast to the Jewish leaders, Jesus is the "Good Shepherd."
"I am the good shepherd. The good shepherd lays down his life for the sheep." (John 10:11)
"I am the good shepherd; I know my sheep and my sheep know me -- just as the Father knows me and I know the Father -- and I lay down my life for the sheep." (John 10:14-15)
Jesus is also, by implication, the shepherd who is "struck" when Jesus is arrested and killed.
"'You will all fall away,' Jesus told them, 'for it is written: "I will strike the shepherd, and the sheep will be scattered."'" (Mark 14:27, cf. Matthew 26:31, quoting Zechariah 3:17)
Later in the New Testament, Shepherd becomes an established title of Jesus.
"May the God of peace, who through the blood of the eternal covenant brought back from the dead our Lord Jesus, that great Shepherd of the sheep...." (Hebrews 13:20)
"When the Chief Shepherd appears, you will receive the crown of glory that will never fade away." (1 Peter 5:4)
Curiously, in Revelation 7:17, the Lamb who is slain also serves as the Shepherd.
"The Lamb at the center of the throne will be
he will lead them to springs of living water...." (Revelation 7:17)
Once he is seen as an overseer or bishop of souls.
"For you were like sheep going astray, but now you have returned to the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls." (1 Peter 2:25)
"Overseer" (NIV, ESV), "guardian" (NRSV, NASB), "bishop" (KJV) is episkopos (from which we get our word "Episcopal"). In Greek usage it means generally, "one who watches over, guardian," from epi-, "over, upon, superintendence" + skopeō, "look out for, notice" (from which we get our word "scope"). Of course, the word "bishop" has developed a technical sense in church hierarchy, but in the context of sheep and shepherding, the overseer keeps an eye out for the sheep and their welfare. He lets them graze, but when they are threatened or about to run off, he steps in to guide or protect them.
Q4. (John 10:11-14) What are the characteristics of the
"Good Shepherd"? How do these contrast with the "hired hand"? God calls us to
shepherd others as pastors, small group leaders, teachers, mentors, etc. How can
we demonstrate that we are "good shepherds" rather than "hired hands"?
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Again and again we are given titles of Jesus that reflect his saving, delivering, caring ministry. They are core to who Jesus is. Thank God that he is the Rescuer and Shepherd who has sought for us until he found us.
Thank you, Father, for sending Jesus to be our Savior. You know how much we need saving! I pray that you might put in our hearts a desire to extend your salvation to those around us. Let us never rest, but always be witnesses to your great salvation. We pray in the name of Jesus, the Great Shepherd of the Sheep. Amen.
Names and Titles of Jesus
- Horn of Salvation (NIV, ESV, KJV, Luke 1:69)
- Mighty Savior (NRSV, Luke 1:69)
- Savior (Luke 2:11; Philippians 3:20; Ephesians 5:23)
- Friend of Tax Collectors and Sinners (Matthew 11:19)
- Deliverer (Romans 11:26)
- Lord and Savior Jesus Christ (2 Peter 1:11; 2:20; 3:18; cf. 3:2)
- The Savior Jesus (Acts 13:23)
- Jesus Christ Our Savior (Titus 1:4; 3:6; 2 Timothy 1:10)
- The Savior of the World (John 4:42; 1 John 4:14).
- Prince and Savior (NIV, KJV, Acts 5:31)
- Leader and Savior (NRSV, ESV, Acts 5:31)
- Great God and Savior, Jesus Christ (Titus 2:13; 2 Peter 1:1)
- Arm of the Lord (Isaiah 53:1)
- Author of Salvation (NIV, NASB, Hebrews 2:10)
- Pioneer of Salvation (NRSV, Hebrews 2:10)
- Founder of Salvation (ESV, Hebrews 2:10)
- Captain of Salvation (KJV; Hebrews 2:10)
- Your Salvation (Luke 2:30)
- Redeemer (Job 19:25; Isaiah 59:20)
- Ransom (Mark 10:45; 1 Timothy 2:6)
- Redemption (1 Corinthians 1:30)
- One Shepherd (Ezekiel 34:23; 37:24)
- Good Shepherd (John 10:11, 14)
- Shepherd (Mark 14:27; Revelation 7:17)
- Shepherd of my People Israel (Matthew 2:6)
- Great Shepherd of the Sheep (Hebrews 13:20)
- Shepherd and Overseer of your Souls (NIV, ESV, 1 Peter 2:25)
- Shepherd and Guardian of your Souls (NRSV, NASB, 1 Peter 2:25)
- Shepherd and Bishop of your Souls (KJV, 1 Peter 2:25)
- Chief Shepherd (1 Peter 5:4)
Songs and Hymns
These songs center around Jesus' role as the one who saves and redeems his people. Titles include Savior, Deliverer, Author of Salvation, Redeemer, Ransom, and Shepherd.
- "All Glory, Laud and Honor" ("to thee, Redeemer, King ... king of Israel ... David's royal Son ... the King and Blessed One"), words: Theodulph of Orleans (c. 820 AD; translated by John M. Neale (1851), music: St. Theodulph, Melchior Teschner (1615)
- "All Things Are Possible" ("My Redeemer"), by Darlene Zschech (© 1997, Hillsong Publishing)
- "Be Unto Your Name" ("Jesus, Redeemer, mighty to save"), by Lynn DeShazo and Gary Sadler (© 1998 Integrity's Hosanna! Music)
- "Because of Your Love" ("Savior You bore all my shame"), by Phil Wickham (© 2008 Phil Wickham Music)
- "Blessed Be the Name" ("Redeemer, Savior, friend of man ... Counselor ... Prince of Peace"), words: William H. Clark, music: Ralph E. Hudson (1888)
- "Emmanuel" ("My Shepherd King, you're watching over me"), by Reuben Morgan (© 2005 Hillsong Music Publishing )
- "Everlasting God" ("Our Hope, our Strong Deliverer"), by Brenton Brown, Ken Riley (© 2005 Thankyou Music)
- "Friend of God," by Israel Houghton and Michael Gungor (© 2003, Integrity's Praise! Music)
- "Gentle Shepherd," Gloria and William J. Gaither (© 1974 William J. Gaither, Inc.)
- "God With Us" ("Our Deliverer, you are Savior"), by Jason Ingram and Leslie Jordan (© 2012, Integrity's Praise Music)
- "Hallelujah! What a Savior," words and music: Philip P. Bliss (1875)
- "He Hideth My Soul" ("A wonderful Savior is Jesus my Lord, a Wonderful Savior to me"), words: Fanny Crosby, music: William J. Kirkpatrick
- "Here Is Love" ("the Prince of Life our Ransom"), by Matt Redman, Robert Lowry, William Rees (© 2004 Thankyou Music)
- "His Name Is Wonderful" ("He's the Great Shepherd"), Audrey Mieir (© 1959 Audrey Mieir. Renewed 1987 Manna Music, Inc. )
- "House of God Forever" ("Your shepherd's staff comforts me"), by Jon Foreman (© 2008 Rubadub Publishing)
- "I Am Not Skilled to Understand" ("at His right hand is One who is my Savior"), words: Dorothy Greenwell (1873), music: Greenwell, William J. Kirkpatrick (1885)
- "I Am" ("Maker of the heavens, Bright and Morning Star ... Fount of Living Water, the Risen Son of Man, the Healer of the Broken .. Savior and Redeemer ... Author and Perfecter, Beginning and the End"), by Mark Schultz (© 2005 Crazy Romaine Music)
- "I Know that My Redeemer Lives," words: Charles Wesley (1742), music: Bradford, George F. Handel
- "Jesus Paid It All," words: Elvina M. Hall (1965), music: John T. Grape
- "Jesus Saves," words: Priscilla J. Owens (1882), music: Salvation, William J. Kirkpatrick
- "Jesus, Friend of Sinners," by Mark Hall, Matthew West (© 2011 My Refuge Music)
- "Jesus, Name Above All Names" ("Beautiful Savior, Glorious Lord, Emmanuel, God with Us, Blessed Redeemer, Living Word"), by Naida Hearn (1974, 1978 Scripture In Song)
- "Jesus, Savior, Pilot Me," words: Edward Hooper (1871), Music: Pilot, John E. Gould (1871)
- "Joy to the World" ("the Lord is come ... the Savior reigns"), words: Isaac Watts, music: Antioch, arranged by Lowell Mason (1836)
- "Mighty to Save," ("Author of salvation"), by Ben Fielding and Reuben Morgan (© 2006 Hillsong Publishing)
- "My Redeemer Lives," by Reuben Morgan (© 1998 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "One Day" ("Living, He loved me; dying, He saved me"), words: J. Wilbur Chapman (1908), music: Charles H. Marsh
- "Our God Reigns" ("When we like sheep had gone astray our Shepherd came"), Leonard E. Smith, Jr. (© 1974, 1978 New Jerusalem Music)
- "Redeemed, How I Love to Proclaim It," words: Fanny Crosby (1882), Music: William J. Kirkpatrick
- "Scandal of Grace" ("Jesus, there's no one besides you"), by Joel Houston, Matt Crocker (© 2012 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "Shepherd of Love," words and music by John W. Peterson (© 1967 John W. Peterson Music Co.)
- "Shepherd" ("Good Shepherd of my soul"), by Amanda Cook (© 2013 Bethel Music Publishing)
- "Shout for Joy" ("Like a banner high, lift up your grateful heart to the Morning Star ... He's the Saving One"), by Jason Ingram, Lincoln Brewster, Paul Baloche (© 2010 Integrity Worship Music)
- "Shout to the Lord" ("My Jesus, my Savior, Lord, there is none like You"), by Darlene Zschech (© 1993, Darlene Zschech and Hillsong Publishing)
- "Shout to the North" ("Jesus is Savior to all, Lord of heaven and earth"), by Martin Smith (© 1995 Curious? Music)
- "Since I Have Been Redeemed," words and music by Edwin O. Excell (1884)
- "Strength of My Heart" ("You are unshakable, Mighty Savior, your love's unbreakable"), by Rend Collective (© 2014 Thankyou Music)
- "Thank You, Jesus" ("Christ my Savior, you rescued me"), by Hannah Hobbs, Matt Crocker (© 2013 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "There is a Redeemer," by Melody Green (© 1982 Universal Music - Brentwood Benson)
- "What a Savior" ("Atoning Sacrifice ... You are the Shepherd King"), Jeremiah Jones (© 2009 Fair Trade Global Songs)
From Appendix 6. Exercises to Help You Internalize the Names of Jesus, select some activities that will help you internalize the truths of this lesson's names, titles, descriptors, and metaphors. This week, how can you creatively pray, meditate, write, worship, consider, draw or paint, compose, picture, and live out these truths in your community?
Actively participating in these ways will help you grow to be like Christ.
 For example, we see "God our Savior" in Psalm 18:46; 24:5; 25:5; 27:9; 38:22; 42:11; 43:5; 65:5; 68:19; 79:9; 85:4; 89:26. He is seen as Savior many times in Isaiah and the Minor Prophets.
 1 Timothy 1:1; 2:3; 4:10; Titus 1:3; 2:10; 3:4; Jude 25.
 Sōzō, BDAG 982, 1.
 'Horn' originally referred to the horn of an animal, but then extended so that "horn" is often used in the Old Testament of military prowess. In the New Testament "horn" could refer to "an exceptional kind of might or power" (Keras, BDAG 540).
 Rhyomai, BDAG 908.
 From the Pogo daily comic strip for Earth Day, 1971. Pogo was the central character in a comic strip (1948-1975) by cartoonist Walt Kelly.
 The key word is archēgos, "one who has a preeminent position, leader, ruler, prince," as well as, "one who begins or originates, originator, founder" (BDAG 138, 1, 3). This word also occurs in Hebrews 12:2, "the author and finisher of our faith."
 R. Laird Harris, gā'al, TWOT #300. Leon Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross (Eerdmans, 1955), pp. 9-59. Otto Procksch, luo, ktl., TDNT 4:328-335.
 Especially, Exodus 6:6; Micah 4:10; Psalms 19:14; Isaiah 54:5; 63:16. You can also see the metaphor of Redeemer in Psalm 78:35; Proverbs 23:11; Isaiah 41:14; 43:14; 44:6, 24; 48:17; 59:20; and Jeremiah 50:34.
 Lytron, BDAG 605.
 Antilytron, BDAG 89; "Materially antilytron is the same as lytron" (Friederich Büchsel, luō, ktl., TDNT 4:349.
 Epi, Thayer 23, D8.
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