Beginning the Journey (for new Christians).
1, 2, and 3 John
1 & 2 Thessalonians
1 & 2 Timothy
2 Peter, Jude
7 Last Words of Christ
Acts 1-12: The Early Church
Christ Powered Life (Rom 5-8)
Conquering Lamb of Revelation
David, Life of
Glorious Kingdom, The
Early Church: Acts1-12
Holy Spirit, Disciple's Guide
Jesus and the Kingdom
Lamb of God
Listening for God's Voice
Names of God
Names of Jesus
Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
Sermon on the Mount
Songs of Ascent (Ps 120-135)
Dr. Wilson's Books
4. Jesus the Messiah, Christ, and Son of Davidby Dr. Ralph F. Wilson
Richard Hook (1914-1975), 'Head of Christ,' © Concordia Publishing House.
What if I were to ask you: What is Jesus' last name? You might say: Christ. Jesus Christ. But you'd be wrong. His last name in Bible days would have been "ben Joseph" (son of Joseph). Christ is his title, his most common title in the New Testament. In the Old Testament, he is known as Messiah, the king that the Jews looked forward to who would save them from their enemies and set up the Kingdom of God on earth.
To understand this title, we need to look at the original languages. Christ (christos) is Greek for "anointed one." The basic verb is chrio, "to rub, stroke," with oils, "to smear, to anoint." But the word didn't originate in the Greek culture but in the Hebrew world. In the Greek Septuagint translation of the Old Testament, christos was the word used to translate the Hebrew word māshîaḥ, "anointed one," which we transliterate as "Messiah."
In the Pentateuch, objects and people were set apart to God as his own sacred property when they were anointed with specially-formulated olive-oil-based anointing oil (Exodus 30:22-25). For example, the tabernacle was ritually anointed to set it apart to God (Exodus 40:9). Aaron, the first high priest, and his sons, were anointed by Moses to set them apart to God (Exodus 28:41; 29:7; 30:30; 40:13), as were subsequent priests, by pouring oil over the priest's head (Exodus 29:7; Psalm 133:2).
When God granted Israel a king, Saul was anointed by the prophet Samuel (1 Samuel 10:1). But when Saul showed himself unworthy, God told Samuel to call together the sons of Jesse of Bethlehem so that he might anoint one of them to replace Saul as king (1 Samuel 16:1). When young David was brought before the prophet, the Lord spoke to him:
"Arise, anoint him, for this is he."
Then Samuel took the horn of oil and anointed him in the midst of his brothers. And the Spirit of the LORD rushed upon David from that day forward." (1 Samuel 16:12-13)
The oil is a symbol of the Holy Spirit coming upon a person for service. As we'll see, there is a close relationship between anointing and the Holy Spirit.
The Davidic Covenant
Later in his reign, David sought to build a house for God, a temple. God replied that David's son Solomon would build the temple, but that God wanted to build a "house" for David. The Hebrew word for "house" can refer not only to one's physical dwelling, but also to one's family and dynasty.
"The LORD declares to you that the LORD himself will establish a house for you: When your days are over and you rest with your fathers, I will raise up your offspring to succeed you, who will come from your own body, and I will establish his kingdom.... Your house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne will be established forever." (2 Samuel 7:11b-12, 16)
This is an amazing promise, known as the Davidic Covenant, that David's dynasty will last forever. David's descendants, the kings of Judah, did continue to reign, father to son, son to grandson for nearly 500 years, until Jerusalem fell to Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon in 587 BC.
The destruction of Jerusalem, exile, and end of the Davidic line of kings was a huge shock to the people. In a psalm written during the exile, you read a recital of the Davidic Covenant, followed by the cry:
"How long, O Lord? Will you hide yourself
How long will your wrath burn like fire?" (Psalm 89:46)
In the years that followed the exile, a hope rose within God's people that David's descendant, the Messiah, would restore glory to the Kingdom. There are hints of this throughout the prophets, encouragements to see God's people through difficult days. In the last century or two before Christ was born, there was intense expectation among the Jews that a descendent of David would come as Messiah to deliver the people from their bondage.
Q1. What is the meaning of the words "Christ" and
"Messiah? How does the Davidic Covenant influence messianic expectation in
If this were a study of messianic prophecy, we'd spend a lot more time with these powerful promises. But since our purpose is to understand Jesus' title as Messiah, I'll give you just a sampling of some important messianic prophecies, putting in bold some of the titles and metaphors that appear.
In the Pentateuch, we find two passages that were interpreted by the Jews -- and later, by the Christians -- as referring to the Messiah. The first is a prophecy by Balaam:
"I see him, but not now;
I behold him, but not near.
A star will come out of Jacob;
a scepter will rise out of Israel...." (Numbers 24:17 )
A second passage is Jacob's prophecy over his son Judah, progenitor of the tribe from which Jesus arose:
"The scepter will not depart from Judah,
nor the ruler's staff from between his feet,
until he comes to whom it belongs
and the obedience of the nations is his." (Genesis 49:10)
Though David's line had been cut off, there was still a stump, and there was hope.
"A shoot will come up from the stump of
from his roots a Branch will bear fruit.
The Spirit of the Lord will rest on him --
the Spirit of wisdom and of understanding,
the Spirit of counsel and of power,
the Spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD...." (Isaiah 11:1-2)
(The KJV has "a rod out of the stem of Jesse" in verse 1.) This passage, especially, was interpreted messianically in the Isaiah Targum (that is, an Aramaic translation or paraphrase of the Old Testament) and by the early rabbis. Isaiah foresees the Messiah bringing in a time of peace and rest for God's people.
"The wolf will live with the lamb,
the leopard will lie down with the goat,
the calf and the lion and the yearling together;
and a little child will lead them.
The cow will feed with the bear,
their young will lie down together,
and the lion will eat straw like the ox.
The infant will play near the hole of the cobra,
and the young child put his hand into the viper's nest.
They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain,
for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD
as the waters cover the sea." (Isaiah 11:6-9)
This Messiah is called "the Prince of Peace" (Isaiah 9:6), that is, the one who brings peace.
Isaiah indicates that Messiah's reign will be a time of righteous rule, conquering of enemies, of the regathering of the Jews that have been scattered through exile (Isaiah 11:10-12). Later, Isaiah prophesies that God will restore the Davidic king to the throne once again.
"Give ear and come to me;
hear me, that your soul may live.
I will make an everlasting covenant with you,
my faithful love promised to David." (Isaiah 55:3)
Messianic psalms give witness to this coming King.
"The kings of the earth set themselves,
and the rulers take counsel together,
against the LORD and against his Anointed (māshîaḥ)...." (Psalm 2:2, ESV))
The prophet Micah foresees this restoration of David's throne, referred to by Jewish scholars when the wise men came to find Jesus (Luke 2:4).
"But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah,
though you are small among the clans of Judah,
out of you will come for me one who will be ruler over Israel,
whose origins are from of old, from ancient times.
Therefore Israel will be abandoned
until the time when she who is in labor gives birth
and the rest of his brothers return to join the Israelites.
He will stand and shepherd his flock in the strength of the Lord,
in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God.
And they will live securely,
for then his greatness will reach to the ends of the earth." (Micah 5:2-4 )
Jeremiah saw this also:
"David will never fail to have a man to sit on the throne of the house of Israel...." (Jeremiah 33:17)
Ezekiel, too, saw this.
"My servant David will be king over them,
and they will all have one shepherd.
They will follow my laws and be careful to keep my decrees." (Ezekiel 37:24)
(We'll consider the title Shepherd in Lesson 7.)
Daniel's prophecy speaks of an "Anointed One" (NIV, ESV, Daniel 9:25, 26), "Anointed Prince" (NRSV), "Messiah" (KJV), who is also called a "prince" or "ruler."
In the third and second centuries BC, in reaction to the oppression of Greek and Roman rule over the land of Israel, there began to grow an eschatological expectation that Messiah would come to set things right and bring in the Kingdom of God.
Three passages in particular played an important role: Genesis 49:10 ("the scepter will not depart from Judah"); Numbers 24:17 ("a star will come out of Jacob"); and Isaiah 11:1-6 (?a shoot from the stump of Jesse"). They are discussed messianically in scrolls from the Qumran community. They are interpreted messianically in the Targums, that is, Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament. And they appear in the intertestamental Jewish literature of the time.
Q2. Which are your favorite messianic prophecies? Which
titles from those are dearest to you? Why?
Jesus the Messiah
By the time of John the Baptist and Jesus, messianic expectation is rampant. John the Baptist is asked if he is the Messiah -- and denies it (John 1:19). People openly wonder if Jesus is this expected Messiah (John 4:25, 29; 7:41).
Andrew, one of Jesus' new followers, tells his brother Simon:
"'We have found the Messiah [Greek Messias]' (that is, the Christ [Greek Christos])." (John 1:41b)
One of the high points of the disciples' spiritual understanding occurs when Jesus takes them away from Jewish regions to Caesarea Philippi so that he can teach them privately.
"When Jesus came to the region of Caesarea
Philippi, he asked his disciples, 'Who do people say the Son of Man is?'
They replied, 'Some say John the Baptist; others say Elijah; and still others, Jeremiah or one of the prophets.'
'But what about you?' he asked. 'Who do you say I am?'
Simon Peter answered, 'You are the Christ, the Son of the living God.'" (Matthew 16:13-16)
(We'll consider Son of the Living God in Lesson 5.) Jesus strongly affirms Peter for this statement and declares that it was revealed to Peter by "my Father in heaven" (verse 17). But then we read something curious:
"Then he warned his disciples not to tell anyone that he was the Christ." (Matthew 16:20; cf. Luke 4:41)
Why would Jesus hide his title as Messiah from the masses? Probably to avoid the political implications of the title and the attention such a title would bring him (Mark 1:45). For the same reason, he forbad the demons from speaking and telling who he was (Mark 1:34; 3:12; Luke 4:41). Jesus did acknowledge that he was the Messiah to the women at the well of Samaria (John 4:25-26) and to Peter after his great confession (Matthew 16:17), but to others he did not. As I explained in Lesson 3, the more ambiguous "Son of Man" was Jesus' preferred title.
Finally, at Jesus' trial, the high priest asks him to declare who he is under oath before a court of law:
"'I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.'
'Yes, it is as you say,' Jesus replied. 'But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.'" (Matthew 26:63-64)
Now there is no reason to hide his Messiahship. Jesus openly acknowledges that he is the Messiah, but then points to his true title: the Son of Man whom Daniel had referred to in his prophecy, to whom all authority and worship will be given. (We'll consider Son of God in Lesson 5.)
Titles as Christ
The usual form of Jesus' title in the New Testament is "Jesus Christ" -- the given name and then the title. But occasionally the order is reversed: the title and then the given name: "Christ Jesus." There isn't much difference between the two, though having the title before the given name might emphasize the title a bit more -- and vice versa. In Acts and the Epistles we often see "Lord" appended to this, the "Lord Jesus Christ," emphasizing Jesus' divinity. (We'll discuss "Lord" in Lesson 5.)
The term "Christ" is also used in several less common combinations in the New Testament:
- Christ Jesus our Lord (Romans 8:39; 1 Timothy 1:12)
- Christ of God (Luke 9:20)
- Christ the Lord (Luke 2:11)
- Christ, the power of God (1 Corinthians 1:24)
- Christ, the wisdom of God (1 Corinthians 1:24)
- Christ, a King (Luke 23:2)
- Christ, Son of the Blessed (Mark 14:61)
- Christ, the Son of God (Acts 9:20)
- The Christ, used absolutely (Matthew 1:16; 16:20; Mark 14:61)
- The Lord's Christ (Luke 2:26)
16:13-16) Whom did Peter believe Jesus to be? How did Peter come to believe
this? Why does Jesus command his disciples not to tell others that he is the
Messiah? (Matthew 16:20).
Son of David
In Israel, there were many people who could trace their lineage to King David. But when people called Jesus "Son of David," they clearly were indicating their belief in him to be the Messiah, the long-expected king of David's line who would come and restore the Kingdom. Though Jesus didn't use the title Son of David concerning himself, others did.
Blind Bartimaeus: "Jesus, Son of David, have mercy on me!" (Mark 10:47-48; Luke 18:38-39; cf. Matthew 9:27; 20:30-31)
"And all the people were amazed, and said, 'Can this be the Son of David?'" (Matthew 12:23)
Syro-Phoenician Woman: "O Lord, Son of David; my daughter is severely oppressed by a demon." (Matthew 15:22)
Especially, during Jesus' triumphal entry, this was part of the outcry of the multitudes.
"And the crowds that went before him and that followed him were shouting, 'Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord! Hosanna in the highest!'" (Matthew 21:9, 15)
Seed or Offspring of David
Sometimes, instead of son, Jesus is called the seed or offspring of David.
"Remember Jesus Christ, raised from the dead, descended from David." (2 Timothy 2:8)
The KJV translates it literally: "the seed of David" (KJV), from the Greek noun sperma, "seed." Revelation 22:16 uses another Greek noun, genos, "descendant," to describe this relationship of "Offspring of David" (NIV, KJV) or "Descendant of David" (NRSV, ESV, NASB). We'll consider this verse in the next section for its other titles.
Finally, in several Old Testament passages, this future descendant of David is simply referred to in shorthand as "David" (Jeremiah 30:9; Ezekiel 34:23; 37:24-25; Hosea 3:5).
Q4. (Matthew 21:9, 15) Why were the chief priests and
scribes so angry when little children referred to Jesus as "Son of David"? What
does the title "Son of David" signify?
Root, Branch, and Shoot
Now to some agricultural metaphors. A root, of course, is the source of a tree's life. A branch is a stem or extension from the axis of a tree. Both of these metaphors are based on the idea of a "family tree," with sometimes Jesse (David's father) and sometimes David himself designated as the Root, Branch, or Shoot.
"In that day the Branch of the LORD
will be beautiful and glorious,
and the fruit of the land will be the pride and glory of the survivors in Israel." (Isaiah 4:2)
"A shoot will come up from the stump of
from his roots a Branch will bear fruit." (Isaiah 11:1)
Isaiah uses a related simile to describe the Suffering Servant in Isaiah 53 who will die on behalf of the nation.
"He grew up before him like a tender shoot,
and like a root out of dry ground." (Isaiah 53:2a)
Isaiah also sees David's descendant as the rallying point for all peoples.
day the Root of Jesse will stand as a banner for the peoples;
the nations will rally to him,
and his place of rest will be glorious." (Isaiah 11:10)
(See more on the title "Banner" in Lesson 8.) Citing this passage along with Isaiah 11:1, Paul paraphrases:
"The Root of Jesse will spring up,
one who will arise to rule over the nations;
the Gentiles will hope in him." (Romans 15:12)
Jeremiah also declares the coming Messiah with the image of the Branch.
are coming," declares the LORD,
'when I will raise up to David a righteous Branch,
a King who will reign wisely
and do what is just and right in the land.'" (Jeremiah 23:5)
days and at that time
I will make a righteous Branch sprout from David's line;
he will do what is just and right in the land." (Jeremiah 33:15)
This expression is also used in Zechariah 3:8 and 6:12, where it seems that the "Branch" represents Jesus in his role as High Priest. (See more on this in Lesson 6.)
The Lion of Judah
The book of Revelation carries on this image.
"I am the Root and the Offspring of David,
and the bright Morning Star." (Revelation 22:16)
"See, the Lion of the tribe of Judah,
the Root of David, has triumphed." (Revelation 5:5)
According to Jacob's ancient prophecy, the lion was the symbol of the tribe of Judah, and Jesus, as the principle descendant of that tribe is seen as the Lion himself. What is ironic is the contrast within two verses in the passage between the Lion, an aggressive animal who is at the top of the food chain, and the Lamb, who is a passive animal, often a victim. Jesus is both the willing sacrifice for our sins and the conquering king. (More on the Bright Morning Star in Lesson 9.)
Q5. Where did the
title "Branch" come from? How does the imagery differ from the title "Root"?
The Chosen One
Isaiah proclaims a Suffering Servant who would come and bring justice. This Servant (as we'll see in Lesson 6) is Jesus.
"Here is my servant, whom I uphold,
my chosen one in whom I delight;
I will put my Spirit on him
and he will bring justice to the nations." (Isaiah 42:1)
Notice the title: "my chosen one." This passage is quoted in Matthew 12:18 as pointing directly to Jesus.
"Behold, my servant whom I have chosen,
my beloved with whom my soul is well pleased." (Matthew 12:18, ESV, RSV, KJV)
"Chosen One" is also used as a messianic title in the mouths of Jesus' enemies at the cross:
"Let him save himself if he is the Christ of God, the Chosen One." (Luke 23:35b)
But Jesus is indeed the Chosen One of God! At Jesus' transfiguration, we read:
"And a voice came out of the cloud, saying,
'This is my Son, my Chosen One;
listen to him!'" (Luke 9:35)
This designation is echoed elsewhere.
"As you come to him, the living Stone --
rejected by men but chosen by God and precious to him....
For in Scripture it says:
'See, I lay a stone in Zion,
a chosen and precious cornerstone,
and the one who trusts in him will never be put to shame.'" (1 Peter 2:4, 6)
(We'll discuss the titles Stone and Cornerstone in Lesson 8).
Q6. (Luke 9:35) Since Jesus is God's Chosen One, what
does it mean to "listen to him"? In what ways does your life reflect listening
to him? In what ways do you need to heed him more explicitly?
Also in paperback, PDF, and Kindle
In this lesson we've examined Jesus' titles of Anointed One, Messiah, Christ, Ruler, Seed, and Son of David. He is the Branch, the Root, and the Chosen One. As we review the wonderful promises made three millennia ago to David, we see how wonderfully they have been fulfilled in David's ultimate descendent -- Messiah Jesus.
Father, thank you for fulfilling the prophecies declaring that a descendant of David would be our Messiah and Deliverer. Help me to listen to him daily and heed his words. In Jesus' name, I pray. Amen.
Names and Titles of Jesus
- Star (Numbers 24:17b)
- Scepter (Numbers 24:17b)
- Anointed (Psalm 2:2)
- Anointed One (NIV, ESV, Daniel 9:25, 26)
- Anointed Prince (NRSV, Daniel 9:25, 26)
- Messiah (KJV, Daniel 9:25, 26)
- Ruler over Israel (Micah 5:2)
- Messiah (John 1:41b)
- Christ (often, especially John 1:41b; Matthew 16:16, 20; 26:63-64; Luke 4:41; etc.)
- Jesus Christ (often)
- Christ Jesus (often)
- Lord Jesus (Acts 7:59)
- Lord Jesus Christ (often)
- Christ Jesus our Lord (Romans 8:39; 1 Timothy 1:12)
- Christ of God (Luke 9:20)
- Christ the Lord (Luke 2:11)
- Christ, the Power of God (1 Corinthians 1:24)
- Christ, the Wisdom of God (1 Corinthians 1:24)
- Christ, a King (Luke 23:2)
- Christ, Son of the Blessed (Mark 14:61)
- Christ, the Son of God (Acts 9:20)
- The Christ (used absolutely, Matthew 1:16; 16:20; Mark 14:61)
- Son of David (Mark 10:47-48; Luke 18:38-39; Matthew 9:27; 12:23; 15:22; 20:30-31; 21:9, 15)
- Seed of David (KJV, 2 Timothy 2:8)
- Offspring of David (NIV, KJV, Revelation 22:16; ESV, 2 Timothy 2:8)
- Descendant of David (NRSV, ESV, Revelation 22:16; NRSV, 2 Timothy 2:8)
- David (Jeremiah 30:9; Ezekiel 34:23; 37:24-25; Hosea 3:5)
- Branch of the Lord (Isaiah 4:2)
- Shoot (NIV, NRSV, ESV, Isaiah 11:1a)
- Rod (KJV, Isaiah 11:1a)
- Branch (Isaiah 11:1b; Zechariah 3:8; 6:12)
- Tender Shoot (Isaiah 53:2a)
- Root out of Dry Ground (Isaiah 53:2a)
- Root of Jesse (Isaiah 11:10; Romans 15:12)
- Banner for the Peoples (Isaiah 11:10)
- Righteous Branch (Jeremiah 23:5; 33:15)
- Root and Offspring of David (Revelation 22:16)
- Lion of the Tribe of Judah (Revelation 5:5)
- Root of David (Revelation 5:5)
- Chosen One (Isaiah 42:1; Luke 23:35b; 9:35)
- My Beloved (Matthew 12:18, ESV, RSV, KJV)
- Chosen and Precious Cornerstone (1 Peter 2:6)
Songs and Hymns
Songs in this lesson focus on Jesus' messianic ministry, with titles such as, Anointed, Messiah, Christ, Son of David, Branch, Shoot, Root of Jesse, Banner, Lion of the Tribe of Judah, Root of David, Chosen One, and Beloved.
- "All Glory, Laud and Honor" ("to thee, Redeemer, King ... king of Israel ... David's royal Son ... the King and Blessed One"), words: Theodulph of Orleans (c. 820 AD; translated by John M. Neale (1851), music: St. Theodulph, Melchior Teschner (1615)
- "Come, O Come, Emmanuel" ("Root of Jesse ... Rod of Jesse"), words: 12th century; music: 15th century
- "Cornerstone" ("Christ Alone"), by Edward Mote, Eric Liljero, Jonas Myrin, Reuben Morgan, William Batchelder Bradbury (© 2011 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "Holy and Anointed One," by John Barnett (© 1988 Mercy / Vineyard Publishing)
- "How Great Is Our God" ("The splendor of the King ... Beginning and the End ... Lion and the Lamb"), by Chris Tomlin, Ed Cash, Jesse Reeves (© 2004 sixsteps Music)
- "I Will Exalt You" (My Friend and King Anointed One") by Brooke Ligertwood (© 2009 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "In Christ Alone" ("This Cornerstone, this solid Ground") by Keith Getty, Stuart Townend (© 2001 Thankyou Music)
- "Jesus Messiah," by Chris Tomlin, Daniel Carson, Ed Cash, Jesse Reeves (2008 sixsteps Music)
- "Like a Lion" ("God's Not Dead"; "He's living on the inside roaring like a lion"), by Daniel Bashta (© 2009 Go Forth Sounds)
- "Lion of Judah," by Mark McCoy (© 1997, Mercy / Vineyard Publishing)
- "Messiah," by Andy Park (© 1989 Mercy / Vineyard Publishing). Many names of Jesus.
- "Messiah," by Phil Wickham (© 2006 Phil Wickham Music)
- "Messiah," by Twila Paris (© 2005 Integrity's Hosanna! Music)
- "Shout for Joy" ("Like a banner high, lift up your grateful heart to the Morning Star ... He's the Saving One"), by Jason Ingram, Lincoln Brewster, Paul Baloche (© 2010 Integrity Worship Music)
- "The Conquering Lion," by Tommy Cowan? (Embassy Music Corp.)
- "The Lion of Judah," words: Fanny Crosby (1878), music: W. Howard Doane
- "There is a Redeemer" ("Precious Lamb of God, Messiah") by Melody Green (© 1982 Universal Music - Brentwood Benson)
- "Victory Chant" ("Hail Jesus! You're my King ... Hail, hail, Lion of Judah"), by Joseph Vogels (© 1985, Universal Music -- Brentwood Benson Publishing)
From Appendix 6. Exercises to Help You Internalize the Names of Jesus, select some activities that will help you internalize the truths of this lesson's names, titles, descriptors, and metaphors. This week, how can you creatively pray, meditate, write, worship, consider, draw or paint, compose, picture, and live out these truths in your community?
Actively participating in these ways will help you grow to be like Christ.
 Simon Bar-Kokhba ("son of the star," based on Numbers 24:17), who some claimed to be the expected Messiah, rebelled against the Roman empire in 132 AD.
 There are many mentions in intertestamental literature of the Messiah. For a sampling see: 1 Enoch 90:37f; 2 Baruch 72:1-5; Psalms of Solomon 18:7-9.
 Acts 19:4; Romans 3:24; Romans 8:1; 1 Cor. 1:2; 1 Cor. 1:30; Hebrews 3:1; 1 Peter 5:10; 1 Peter 5:14.
 In Acts 9:22 the KJV uses the title "the very Christ," but the word "very" is not in the text -- the word houtos is better rendered, "this one" rather than the archaic "very."
 The high priest and his associates are called "men symbolic of things to come" (Zechariah 3:8).
Copyright © 2023, Ralph F. Wilson. <pastorjoyfulheart.com> All rights reserved. A single copy of this article is free. Do not put this on a website. See legal, copyright, and reprint information.
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