Jesus' Parables for Disciples
Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 'Holy Spirit,' oval stained glass window, part of the massive Chair of St. Pater (1647-1653), behind the altar at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican.
Earlier in chapter 14, Jesus has been comforting his disciples, explaining that he is the way, the truth, and the life, and also his intimate relationship with the Father.
Now Jesus begins teaching his disciples about the Holy Spirit, the "Paraclete," who will come to take his place when he goes to the Father. Over chapters 14, 15, and 16, we see Jesus' fullest teaching about the Holy Spirit.
We'll be taking our time as we study this passage so we can understand exactly what Jesus is saying about the Holy Spirit. In addition, this lesson introduces an important theme that connects love for Jesus with obeying his commandments.
This lesson begins with the verse
"If you love me, you will obey what I command." (14:15)
However, we'll consider verse 15 with verses 21-25 below. Here, let's focus on the nature of the Paraclete in verses 16 and 17.
"16 And I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor (paraklētos) to be with you forever -- 17 the Spirit of truth. The world cannot accept him, because it neither sees him nor knows him. But you know him, for he lives with you and will be in you." (14:16-17)
What is this paraklētos, identified with the Holy Spirit in verse 17, and mentioned elsewhere in these Farewell Discourses at 14:26; 15:26; and 16:7. The word is variously translated as the "Comforter" (KJV), "Counselor" (NIV, RSV), "Advocate" (NRSV), "Helper" (ESV, NASB). The reason for the wide variety of translations is that the Greek adjective paraklētos can't be easy translated into English with a single word that adequately covers its breadth of meaning.
Paraklētos is an adjective formed from the verb parakaleō, which has the basic meaning, "call to one's side" for help. But the verb parakaleō has a variety of extended meanings that complicate our understanding of the exact force of the noun in our passage. It can mean "to urge strongly, appeal to, urge, exhort, encourage," and "to make a strong request for something, request, implore, entreat," then "comfort, encourage, cheer up," and perhaps "be friendly to, speak to in a friendly manner."
Commentators seem to be agreed that paraklētos is passive in form, "called to the side of" for the purpose of helping, "called to one's aid," in a court of justice, and used as a substantive, "legal assistant, advocate."
The translation "Comforter" comes from Wycliffe's translation into English (1392), which drew perhaps upon "comfort's" etymological sense (Latin, con, "with" + fortis, "strong"). In this sense it might denote "Strengthener," "Helper" (ESV). In Greek, the word can have the idea of one who provides help as a legal advocate, particularly an advocate for the defense (used of Jesus in 1 John 2:1). Another approach to understanding paraklētos might be as "Friend," as in a Friend at court. For more, see Appendix 8. The Paraclete. Because different translations use different terms, I'll be using the term Paraclete in these lessons to avoid confusion.
Jesus' statement in verse 16 about the Father sending "another Counselor (paraklētos)" is intriguing. This implies that the disciples already have a Paraclete to help them, and that the Holy Spirit is another Paraclete in addition. Jesus is saying that at present he is their Paraclete -- the one the Father has sent to help them. In verse 17b, Jesus tells his disciples that they, unlike the world, are already familiar with this Paraclete:
"... For he lives with you and will be in you."
Jesus seems to be saying that in his own Person they have experienced the Paraclete living or abiding "with them" or at their side. But, when the Father sends the Holy Spirit, this Paraclete will be (future tense) within them. Thus the Trinity is indwelling the believer, through the Spirit!
Jesus has been their Paraclete, Helper, Friend thus far, but the Holy Spirit will replace Jesus as an interior presence, always with them, to guide and instruct them.
Q1. (John 14:15-17) What do you think is the best way to
describe the Paraklētos that Jesus sends? In what sense is the Holy
Spirit "another" Paraclete? Who was the initial Paraclete? In what way can the
Holy Spirit replace him?
"18 I will not leave you as orphans; I will come to you. 19 Before long, the world will not see me anymore, but you will see me. Because I live, you also will live. 20 On that day you will realize that I am in my Father, and you are in me, and I am in you." (14:18-20)
When Jesus said he was going away and would be crucified, his disciples were shocked. Now Jesus assures them by explaining that he won't leave them "desolate" (RSV), literally, "orphaned" (NRSV), a word sometimes used to describe the state of disciples at the death of their rabbi.
Rather than leave them desolate, Jesus says, "I will come to you." The question is: When and how will Jesus come to them? Commentators are divided here.
1. Second Coming. Jesus will come at the end of the age, which seems to be what is meant in 14:3. This view was held by the Latin Fathers.
2. Post-Resurrection Appearances. Jesus will appear to them after his resurrection. This would accord with the phrase "before long" or "in a little while" -- though Jesus describes his Second Coming as "soon" elsewhere (Revelation 22:7, 12, 20). It also is supported by the phrase "the world will not see me anymore." Jesus appeared to his disciples after his resurrection, not to unbelievers (Acts 10:40-41). The connection of "because I live, you also will live" with the resurrection seems obvious. Such an interpretation seems to accord with the passage conceptually closest to it in 16:16-30. This view was generally held by the Eastern Fathers.
3. Coming of the Holy Spirit. Jesus is speaking of a more continued presence -- "I shall not leave you orphans" (14:18). His words in verses 18-20 imply a permanence. In addition, these verses appear immediately following a promise of the Paraclete in verses 16-17 and are shortly followed by another reference to the Paraclete in verses 25 and 26. Indeed, Jesus tells his disciples, "Lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age" (Matthew 28:20b). Our passage also talks about the mutual indwelling of the Father and Jesus in us (verse 20). In verse 23, Jesus promises obedient believers that he and the Father, "will come to him and make our home with him" (14:23) -- a spiritual, not a physical reality. Brown examines the parallels between verses 15-17 and verses 18-21, and concludes,
"Such parallelism is John's way of telling the reader that the presence of Jesus after his return to the Father is accomplished in and through the Paraclete. Not two presences but the same presence is involved."
Devout Christians disagree on the exact interpretation of verses 15-17. I think a good case can be made for 2 and 3. For me, arguments for Jesus coming to his disciples in the Holy Spirit seem more compelling than the other possibilities. But, since John is known for his double meanings, it's possible that here Jesus is referring to both his coming to them following the resurrection and by the Holy Spirit.
Now we consider a theme concerning obeying Jesus' commandments found twice in our lesson.
"If you love me, you will obey what I command." (14:15)
"21 Whoever has my commands and
obeys them, he is the one who loves me. He who loves me will be loved by my
Father, and I too will love him and show myself to him.
22 Then Judas (not Judas Iscariot) said, 'But, Lord, why do you intend to show yourself to us and not to the world?'
23 Jesus replied, 'If anyone loves me, he will obey my teaching. My Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him. 24 He who does not love me will not obey my teaching. These words you hear are not my own; they belong to the Father who sent me. 25 All this I have spoken while still with you.'" (14:21-25)
The key verb is "obey" (NIV), "keep" (NRSV, ESV, KJV), tēreō, "keep watch over, guard," here with the extended sense, "to persist in obedience, keep, observe, fulfill, pay attention to," especially of law and teaching., The key noun, translated "what I command" (NIV), "commandments" (NRSV, ESV, KJV) is entolē, "a mandate or ordinance, command." This theme tying love and obedience is found throughout the Johannine books of the Bible, but less often in the Synoptic Gospels.
What commands is Jesus referring to? In the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus discusses keeping the Mosaic Law and interpreting it properly, correcting some of the Pharisees' distortions. Jesus sums up the law and the prophets in the two great commandments -- to love God and love one's neighbor (Matthew 22:36-40). In John's Gospel, of course, just prior to this, Jesus had given a very clear command:
"A new command I give you: Love one another. As I have loved you, so you must love one another. By this all men will know that you are my disciples, if you love one another." (13:34-35)
When Jesus gives what are called commands, they refer to love. The bulk of Jesus' teaching and ministry concerns aren't couched in terms of "commandments," but as a way of life. To summarize, Jesus teaches his disciples:
- Who he is,
- The meaning of his crucifixion and resurrection,
- Being set free and born by the Spirit,
- Loving one's enemies,
- Humble service,
- Worship from the heart rather than mere outward observance,
- Faith, prayer, and obedience to the Father's direction,
- Healing the sick,
- Commitment to him despite persecution,
- Ministry to the lost,
- The coming Holy Spirit, and
- Final judgment and reward at his return.
As the disciples incorporate this lifestyle and these values into their lives, they are able to carry on his mission and pass it on to others. In the Great Commission Jesus tells us to make disciples, "teaching them to obey (tēreō, "keep, observe") everything I have commanded you" (Matthew 28:20). We don't teach a set of commands, a code of law, so much as values and a way of life.
Even though the Christian faith isn't characterized by obeying a set of commands, you and I know that it is clearly possible to live in such a way that displeases God, that is the opposite of what Christ teaches us: sexual immorality, deceit, stealing, selfishness, exploitation of others, etc. But the Christian life doesn't consist in what we don't do, what we avoid, but in the positive ways we begin to incorporate Jesus' way of life into our world.
What strikes me is that in these verses is the close relationship between love and obedience. Love seems like a relationship word, while obedience sometimes comes about by other motives than love. We can obey out of fear of getting caught and being punished. We can obey out of hope for advancement and favor. We can obey out of a sense of moral uprightness (which could edge into self-righteousness) without any real love for Jesus. We see this in the Pharisees' observance of the oral law.
But Jesus says that if we love him, we will obey or keep his commandments, his teachings. A quotation attributed to St. Augustine puts it this way:
"Love God and do whatever you please, for the soul trained in love to God will do nothing to offend the One who is Beloved."
If we love someone, we don't have difficulty doing the things we know they want. Keeping Jesus' teachings can be one clear evidence of our love.
In Jesus' Parable of the Sheep and the Goats, he recognizes people who keep his teachings:
"For I was hungry and you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me.... I tell you the truth, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers of mine, you did for me." (Matthew 25:35-36, 40)
Does this mean that we are saved by works rather than faith? No, but the way we live reflects our love and our faith. Jesus' brother James writes:
"As the body without the spirit is dead, so faith without deeds is dead." (James 2:26)
Love and obedience go hand in hand. Does obeying Jesus' commands introduce a new legalism in the place of grace? No. But just as loving one another is one indicator of being a disciple (13:35), observing Jesus' teachings in the way we live our lives is an indicator of our love for him.
The Gospel of John concludes with this same theme, linking love for Jesus with faithful service.
"Jesus said to Simon Peter, 'Simon son of John, do you love me more than these?' He said to him, 'Yes, Lord; you know that I love you.' Jesus said to him, 'Feed my lambs.'" (John 21:15)
Q2. (John 14:15, 21-25) How is obedience to Jesus linked
to loving him? When Jesus emphasizes obedience, what keeps this from being the
heavy burden of a new legalism? Can we love Jesus and not obey him? If
Now Jesus returns to explain more about the Paraclete who will be sent to his disciples.
"25 All this I have spoken while still with you. 26 But the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you." (14:25-26)
In these two verses, Jesus reveals several things about the Paraclete.
- The Paraclete is sent by Father in name of Jesus. (For more on this see Appendix 9. The Sending of the Holy Spirit.) "In the name of" may suggest that the Spirit is Jesus' personal emissary.
- The Paraclete refers specifically to the Holy Spirit. This verse makes it explicit.
- The Paraclete will teach (didaskō) the disciples all things.
- The Paraclete will remind the disciples of what Jesus taught. We probably shouldn't separate reminding and teaching as two separate functions. Reminding is part of the teaching function.
- The Paraclete is spoken of in personal terms (14:26). We'll discuss this below in 15:26 (Lesson 27), and in Appendix 8. The Paraclete.
Jesus has been the disciples' rabbi and teacher. Now the Holy Spirit will take over that function. The disciples often misunderstood what Jesus had said and done. When the Holy Spirit comes he will help them remember -- so they can understand and interpret correctly for the church -- what Jesus had taught them. Now they'll be assessing Jesus' words in the light of his crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension. Evangelicals believe that the Holy Spirit superintended the development of apostolic doctrine so that it properly interpreted Jesus' own teaching (2:17, 22; 12:16).
The Holy Spirit doesn't bring a new revelation (16:13). Rather he represents Jesus and makes Jesus' teaching clear.
Q3. (John 14:25-26). What do we learn about the Paraclete
in verses 25 and 26? Who is he? Why is his teaching/reminding role important to
The chapter began with Jesus' comfort: "Let not your hearts be troubled..." (14:1)
"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid." (14:27)
I am going, says Jesus, but my shalom, my peace, I leave with you. Peace, in the Hebrew sense of shalom, is a broad word that implies general well-being, welfare, blessing. Our English word "peace," on the other hand is generally applied to the absence of conflict. Among Jews, shalom was and is used as a greeting. But Jesus means something more, something deeper than a well-wisher's friendly words.
Jesus' peace is not like worldly peace. Later in the Farewell Discourse, Jesus tells us that peace is found "in me" (16:33). It is not absence of conflict (Matthew 10:34). Indeed, all but one of Jesus' apostles would suffer violent death as a martyr. Jesus' peace is a state of peace and goodwill with the King of Kings; it is "peace with God through our Lord Jesus Christ" (Romans 5:1; Acts 10:36; vs. Luke 19:41-42). It is also wholeness, the health that Jesus offered the woman healed from a hemorrhage, "Daughter, your faith has healed you. Go in peace" (Luke 8:48). Jesus' peace is a promise that he is with us forever -- "Surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age" (Matthew 28:20b).
This peace of the Messiah was promised centuries before by the prophet Isaiah.
"He will be called Wonderful Counselor, Mighty
Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace.
Of the increase of his government and peace there will be no end." (Isaiah 9:6b-7a)
When Messiah reigns on the Last Day, his peace will reign over all and bring pervasive change, and will include absence of conflict throughout his realm.
"The wolf will live with the lamb,
the leopard will lie down with the goat,
the calf and the lion and the yearling together;
and a little child will lead them.
The cow will feed with the bear,
their young will lie down together,
and the lion will eat straw like the ox.
The infant will play near the hole of the cobra,
and the young child put his hand into the viper's nest.
They will neither harm nor destroy on all my holy mountain,
for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the LORD
as the waters cover the sea." (Isaiah 11:6-9)
Q4. (John 14:27) If it doesn't mean cessation of conflict
in our everyday lives, what then is the peace that Jesus offers us now?
"28 You heard me say, 'I am going away and I am coming back to you.' If you loved me, you would be glad that I am going to the Father, for the Father is greater than I. 29 I have told you now before it happens, so that when it does happen you will believe." (14:28-29)
Some have claimed that the statement, "the Father is greater than I," proves that Jesus didn't claim divinity or equality with God. Not at all. It does show subordination to the Father, which we see elsewhere (5:19; 14:31; Luke 22:42; 1 Corinthians 3:23; 11:3; 15:27-29). But subordination does not imply inferiority of person. As theologians put it, the Son is subordinate functionally, but not ontologically (based on being or existence). Carson points out, if he were to say, "'Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second is greater than I,' no one would take this to mean that she is more of a human being than I."
Now Jesus reminds them that his time is short.
"30 I will not speak with you much longer, for the prince of this world is coming. He has no hold on me, 31 but the world must learn that I love the Father and that I do exactly what my Father has commanded me." (14:30-31a)
In these two verses we learn three things.
- "The prince of this world," Satan, still has power in this world, even though at some point "he will be driven out" (12:31).
- Satan has no hold on Jesus, no secret power, no sin to accuse him of. "No hold on me" (NIV), "no power over me" (NRSV), "no claim on me" (ESV), "hath nothing in me" (KJV), is literally, "in me he does not have anything (ouden)."
- Jesus' obedience to the Father shows his love. This is part of the "glory" of the cross. This demonstrates the love within the Godhead that has existed before the beginning.
People become subject to blackmail when someone knows a naughty secret from their past, and threatens to expose them unless they do or pay whatever the blackmailer requires. But Satan can find nothing in Jesus to use as leverage. He has nothing on Jesus.
Q5. (John 14:30-31a) How does Satan take advantage of our
previous sins to control us or make us fearful? In verse 31, how does Jesus stay
free from bondage to Satan? How can we free ourselves from bondage to Satan and
fear of exposure?
The final verse in the chapter is curious:
"Come now; let us leave." (14:31b)
Since the Farewell Discourses continue for several more chapters, they may have been delivered elsewhere than at the Upper Room -- on the road to the Mount of Olives, perhaps. However, later we read:
"When he had finished praying, Jesus left with his disciples and crossed the Kidron Valley. On the other side there was an olive grove, and he and his disciples went into it." (18:1)
So where Jesus was during the later part of the Farewell Discourses remains somewhat of a mystery.
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We disciples can learn a number of things from the passage we've been studying:
- The Father will send us the Holy Spirit, called the "Paraclete," who is a Helper, Advocate, Encourager, and Friend who comes alongside us to help us (14:15-17).
- The Paraclete is in some aspects a replacement for Jesus, who had come alongside the disciples to help them (14:16).
- Jesus promises to come to his disciples, though it's not clear whether this refers to Jesus' post-resurrection appearances or to his presence in the Holy Spirit (14:18-20).
- Love for Jesus will show up in willing obedience to his commands, especially his command to love one another. Lack of obedience indicates lack of love, though this is not intended to become a new legalism (14:15, 21-25).
- The Paraclete, the Holy Spirit, is sent by the Father in Jesus' name (14:26).
- The Paraclete will instruct the disciples and remind them of what Jesus taught (14:26).
- Jesus offers his peace -- peace with God -- though not yet a lack of conflict in the world (14:27).
- Jesus says the Father is greater than he -- in role and power, but not greater in divinity or in person (14:28).
- Satan, the "prince of this world," will wreak havoc in the world, but he has no power over Jesus, and doesn't need to have power over us either (14:30-31).
Father, thank you for sending us the Holy Spirit. It seems like we have so much to learn about who he is and how to listen to him. Please help us to learn to walk in the presence and the power of the Spirit in our world. We have no power of ourselves, but in You we can overcome the world! In Jesus' name, we pray. Amen.
"If you love me, you will obey what I command." (John 14:15, NIV)
"I will ask the Father, and he will give you another Counselor to be with you forever -- the Spirit of truth... You know him, for he lives with you and will be in you." (John 14:16-17)
"On that day you will realize that I am in my Father, and you are in me, and I am in you." (John 14:20, NIV)
"If anyone loves me, he will obey my teaching. My Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our home with him." (John 14:23, NIV)
"The Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you." (John 14:26, NIV)
"Peace I leave with you; my peace I give you. I do not give to you as the world gives. Do not let your hearts be troubled and do not be afraid." (John 14:27, NIV)
"I will not speak with you much longer, for the prince of this world is coming. He has no hold on me." (John 14:30, NIV)
 "Accept" (NIV), "receive" (NRSV, ESV, KJV) is the common verb lambanō, "receive," here figuratively, "to accept as true, receive something," or perhaps, "to enter into a close relationship, receive, make one's own, apprehend/comprehend" mentally or spiritually (BDAG 584, 7 or 8).
 "Sees" is theōreō, "see," with the sense of "to come to the understanding of something, notice, perceive, observe, find" (BDAG 454, 2b).
 "Knows" is ginōskō, "know," probably with the sense, "to indicate that one does know, acknowledge, recognize as that which one is or claims to be" (BDAG 200, 7).
 Parakaleō, BDAG 764-765.
 Liddell-Scott, Greek-English Lexicon.
 In addition, see Leon Morris, "Additional Note F: The Paraclete," John, pp. 662-666; and M.M.B. Turner, "Holy Spirit," DJG, pp. 349-351.
 "Another" is allos, "other, another" (BDAG 46-47).
 "Lives" (NIV), "abides" (NRSV), "dwells" (ESV, KJV) is menō in the present tense, "remain, stay," in transferred sense, "of someone who does not leave a certain realm or sphere: remain, continue, abide" (BDAG 631, 1aβ). It is possible that menei, present tense, could be accented as meneĩ making it future tense (which wouldn't show up in the manuscripts), but the present tense is more likely (Morris, John, p. 650, fn. 49).
 "With" is the preposition para with the dative, "marker of nearness in space, at/by (the side of), beside, near, with" (BDAG 757, 1).
 "Will/shall be" is eimi, "to be," in the future tense. Most ancient manuscripts show this as the future tense estai, except a few as present tense, estin -- p75 B D* W it. The future is likely here.
 "In" is the preposition en, "in," here, a "marker of close association within a limit, in" (BDAG 328, 4c).
 "Orphans" (NIV, ESV), "orphaned" (NRSV), "desolate" (RSV), "comfortless" (KJV) is orphanos (from which we get our English word "orphan"), "pertaining to being deprived of parents, without parents, orphan," then, by extension, "pertaining to being without the aid and comfort of one who serves as associate and friend, orphaned" (BDAG 725, 2). Disciples of a rabbi (Strack and Billerbeck 2:562) -- and disciples of Socrates (Phaedo 116A) -- were said to be "orphaned" at the death of their mentor (Brown, John 2:640).
 "Before long" (NIV), "in a little while" (NRSV, ESV, KJV) is two words, eti, "yet" and micros, "small," here, and in 16:16-19, of time, this combination = "soon" (micros, BDAG 651, 1dβ).
 Morris, John, p. 650-651; Beasley-Murray, John, pp. 258-259.
 Carson (John, p. 501-502) argues that "a concatenation of small clues drives the reader to the conclusion that Jesus is referring to his departure in death and his return after his resurrection." Kruse (John, pp. 306-308) also sees this passage as a reference to the coming of the Holy Spirit.
 Brown, John 2:644-646.
 Tēreō, BDAG 1002, 3.
 Most modern translations rely on ancient texts that show this verb in the future tense, though the KJV translates it as an imperative. Future tense (B L Ψ etc.; NIV, NRSV, RSV, ESV, NASB) was preferred by a majority of the Committee, because it accords better with the future tense in verse 16, though the imperative is well supported (A D K W X Δ Θ Π f1 f13 Byz; KJV). Brown, John 2:638 translates it in the imperative and says it accords well with verses 15 and 16.
 Entolē, BDAG 340, 2aGimmel, δ. Used in John 13:34; 14:15, 21; 15:10a, 12; 1 John 2:3-4.
 John 8:51-52; 14:15, 21, 23-24; 15:10ab, 20ab; 17:6; 1 John 2:3-5; 3:22, 24; 5:3; Revelation 1:3; 2:26; 3:3, 8, 10; 12:17; 14:12; 22:7. Beyond these passages, the idea of loving Jesus is surprisingly infrequent in the New Testament. It is found with agapoō in 8:42; 21:15-17; Ephesians 6:24; 1 Peter 1:8; and with phileō in 16:27; 21:17; Matthew 10:37; 1 Corinthians 16:22.
 Cf. Luke 11.28; Matthew 10:37.
 I have searched diligently for the source of this quotation, but have come up dry. A similar thought, however, is found in Augustine's Homilies on 1 John, 7.8.
 Carson, John, p. 505.
 "Remind" (NIV, NRSV), "bring to your remembrance" (RSV, ESV, KJV) is the verb hypomimnēskō, "to put another in mind of something, remind," from mimnēskomai, "to recall information from memory, remember, recollect, remind oneself." I don't see much influence on the meaning of the word from the prefix hypo-. In classical Greek, hypomimnēskō denoted, "put one in mind or remind one of" as well as, "bring to one's mind, mention, suggest" (Liddell-Scott, Greek-English Lexicon). The word is also used at Luke 22:61; 2 Timothy 2;14; Titus 3:1; 2 Peter 1:12; 3 John 10; and Jude 5. The noun form hypomnēsis is used at 2 Peter 1:13; 3:1; 2 Timothy 1;5.
 "Leave" is aphiēmi, "to cause someone to undergo separation," here in the sense, "to have something continue or remain in a place, leave standing/lying" (BDAG 156, 4).
 "Peace" is eirēnē, "a state of concord, peace, harmony," between governments and in personal relationships. Then, "a state of well-being, peace," corresponding to the Hebrew shalom, "welfare, health." The farewell greeting, "go in peace," is approximately equivalent to "keep well." According to the prophets, peace will be an essential characteristic of the messianic kingdom. So Christian thought frequently regards peace as nearly synonymous with messianic salvation (eirēnē, BDAG 288).
 Carson, John, p. 507.
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