References and Abbreviations

BDAG Walter Bauer and Frederick William Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Third Edition; based on previous English editions by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker; University of Chicago Press, 1957, 1979, 2000)


Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Clarendon Press, 1907)

Bruce, Acts

F. F. Bruce, The Book of the Acts (New International Commentary on the New Testament; Eerdmans, 1954)

Bruce, Paul

F. F. Bruce, Paul: Apostle of the Heart Set Free (Eerdmans, 1977)

Bruce, Circle

F. F. Bruce, The Pauline Circle (Wipf & Stock, 2006, reprint Kingsley Books, 2017)


Gerald F. Hawthorne, Ralph P. Martin, and Daniel G. Reid, Dictionary of Paul and his Letters (Inter-Varsity Christian Fellowship, 1993)


English Standard Version (Crossway, 2001)


Wayne Grudem, Systematic Theology: An Introduction to Biblical Doctrine (Zondervan, 1994, 2000)


Everett F. Harrison, Acts: The Expanding Church (Moody Press, 1975)


King James Version


Richard N. Longenecker, Paul, Apostle of Liberty: The Origin and Nature of Paul's Christianity (Baker, 1964)


I. Howard Marshall, The Acts of the Apostles (Tyndale New Testament Commentaries; Eerdmans, 1980)


New American Standard Bible (The Lockman Foundation, 1977, 1995)


New International Version (International Bible Society, 1973, 1978)


New Jerusalem Bible (Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd., 1985)


New Revised Standard Version (Division of Christian Education, National Council of Churches of Christ USA, 1989)

O'Brien, Philippians

Peter T. O'Brien, The Epistle to the Philippians: A Commentary on the Greek Text (New International Greek Testament Commentary; Eerdmans, 1991),


William M. Ramsay, St. Paul the Traveler and the Roman Citizen (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1897, reprinted by Baker, 1962)


Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich (editors), Geoffrey W. Bromiley (translator and editor), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Eerdmans, 1964-1976; translated from Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, ten-volume edition)


Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (reprinted from 1889 edition)

The Message

Eugene H. Peterson (translator), The Message: The Bible in Contemporary Language (NavPress, 2002).


Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, (editors), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (2 volumes, Moody Press, 1980)


C. Peter Wagner, The Book of Acts: A Commentary (Third edition; Regal, 2008)

Wright, Paul

N. T. Wright, Paul: A Biography (HarperOne, 2018)

Wright, Faithfulness

N. T. Wright, Paul and the Faithfulness of God (Christian Origins and the Question of God, vol. 4; Fortress Press, 2 volumes, 2013)

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