References and Abbreviations


David Noel Freedman (editor-in-chief), The Anchor Bible Dictionary (Doubleday, 1992)

Ashley, Numbers

Timothy R. Ashley, The Book of Numbers (New International Commentary on the Old Testament; Eerdmans, 1993)


Walter Bauer and Frederick W. Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Third Edition; based on a previous English edition by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker; University of Chicago Press, 1957, 1979). This is the standard NT Greek-English Lexicon


Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs (eds.), A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907). Used in an electronic edition.

Beitzel, Atlas Barry J. Beitzel, The Moody Atlas of Bible Lands (Moody Press, 1985)

Cole, Exodus

R. Alan Cole, Exodus (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries; Inter-Varsity Press, 1973)

Childs, Exodus

Brevard S. Childs, The Book of Exodus (The Old Testament Library; Westminster Press, 1974)

Craigie, Deuteronomy

P. C. Craigie, The Book of Deuteronomy (New International Commentary on the Old Testament; Eerdmans, 1976)

Davis, Moses

John J. Davis, Moses and the Gods of Egypt: Studies in Exodus (Baker Book House, 1971)


T. Desmond Alexander and David W. Baker (editors), Dictionary of the Old Testament: Pentateuch (InterVarsity Press, 2003)

Durham, Exodus

John I. Durham, Exodus (Word Biblical Commentary; Nelson, 1987)

God's Wilderness Beno Rothenberg, in collaboration with Yohanan Aharoni and Avia Hashimshoni, God's Wilderness: Discoveries in Sinai (Thomas Nelson, 1961-62).

Harrison, Intro

R. K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1969)

Harrison, Numbers

R. K. Harrison, Numbers: An Exegetical Commentary (Baker Book House, 1992)


William L. Holladay (editor), A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, based upon the Lexical work of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner (Eerdmans/Brill, 1971, 1988)

Hyatt, Exodus

J. Philip Hyatt, Exodus (New Century Bible Commentary; Eerdmans, 1971)


Geoffrey W. Bromiley (general editor), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, 1979-1988; fully revised from the 1915 edition)

Keil and Delitzsch

Carl Friedrich Keil and Franz Delitzsch, Commentary on the Old Testament (10 volumes; Eerdmans, 1976, reprinted from earlier editions, originally appearing in 1861. The Pentateuch portion was written by Keil and translated from the German by James Martin.)


K.A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 2003)


King James Version  (Authorized Version, 1611)


New American Standard Bible (The Lockman Foundation, 1960-1988)


New International Version (International Bible Society, 1973, 1978)


New Jerusalem Bible (Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd, 1985)


New Revised Standard Version  (Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches of Christ, USA, 1989)


Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich (editors), Geoffrey W. Bromiley (translator and editor), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Eerdmans, 1964-1976; translated from Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, ten volume edition)

Thompson, Deuteronomy

J. A. Thompson, Deuteronomy (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries; Inter-Varsity Press, 1974)

Thompson, Treaties

J. A. Thompson, The Ancient Near Eastern Treaties and the Old Testament (London: Tyndale Press, 1964)

Wenham, Numbers

Gordon J. Wenham, Numbers (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries; Inter-Varsity Press, 1981)

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