Apostle Paul: Passionate Discipleship
Beginning the Journey (for new Christians).
1, 2, and 3 John
1 & 2 Thessalonians
1 & 2 Timothy
2 Peter, Jude
7 Last Words of Christ
Christ Powered Life (Rom 5-8)
David, Life of
Glorious Kingdom, The
Holy Spirit, Disciple's Guide
Jesus and the Kingdom
Lamb of God
Listening for God's Voice
Names of God
Names of Jesus
Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
Sermon on the Mount
Heinrich Hofmann, detail of 'Christ at Thirty-three' (about 1889)
We've looked at what Jesus' parents called him, and the names and titles that others used for him. But what did Jesus call himself?
Most of the time, he probably introduced himself simply as Jesus, his given name. But on special teaching occasions he would refer to himself with the peculiar designation -- in the third person -- "the Son of Man." It was the only title that Jesus himself freely used. No one else ever used that title to designate Jesus. Nor does the phrase occur in the New Testament outside of the Gospels, except in the words of Stephen (Acts 7:56). But the title occurs on Jesus' lips at least 65 times in the Gospels. What did he mean by it?
In this lesson we'll consider the important title "Son of Man," as well as several other titles that relate to Jesus' human journey. I'll spend quite a bit of time on Son of Man. It isn't widely understood by the average Christian, but it is of vital importance to who Jesus believed himself to be.
I've heard people say that Jesus was the "Son of Man" and "Son of God," as if Son of Man referred to Jesus' human nature, while Son of God referred to his divine nature. As we'll see, that kind of analysis is both simplistic and wrong.
To understand the title Son of Man, we first need to look at the Hebrew idioms "son of" and "daughter of." Of course, the phrases are used literally many times in genealogies and at the introduction of a new person in the story. For example, the book of Jeremiah begins: "The words of Jeremiah son of Hilkiah, one of the priests at Anathoth in the territory of Benjamin."
But we often see a peculiar idiom, both in the Old Testament (written in Hebrew and Aramaic) and in the Gospels (translated from Aramaic, the language that Jesus spoke). "Son of" often denotes "one who shares in something or who is worthy of it, or who stands in some other close relation to it.""
Here are a few examples -- sometimes smoothed out in modern translations, but given explicitly in the NASB and KJV:
- "sons of disobedience" (Ephesians 2:2, those who are disobedient);
- "son of perdition" (John 17:12; 2 Thessalonians 2:3, the one destined to perish);
- "son of peace" (Luke 10:6, a man inclined toward peace);
- "sons of the kingdom" (Matthew 8:12; 13:38a; those destined to inherit the kingdom);
- "sons of thunder" (Mark 3:17; loud people);
- "son of encouragement" ("Barnabas," Acts 4:36, one who encourages).
Often in the Old Testament, the designation "son of man" means just that -- a human being, man, such as in Numbers 23:19 and Psalm 144:3. In the Book of Ezekiel, "son of man" is the peculiar form of address by which God speaks to the prophet some 90 times.
But as Jesus' self-title in the Gospels, Son of Man means more than "man." It is rather clear, as we shall see, that Jesus is referring to a specific figure who occurs in Daniel's prophecy:
"In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed." (Daniel 7:13-14)
Later in the prophecy, the Son of Man is not mentioned. In his place "the saints of the Most High" receive the kingdom and possess it forever (Daniel 7:18, 22, 27).
In Daniel the idiom "son of man" at this point doesn't seem to be the messianic title that it became later. Rather the prophet speaks of a man contrasted with the four beasts seen previously. Here's what we know about this son of man figure or can infer from these verses. He:
- Resembles a man.
- Comes on the clouds of heaven, perhaps denoting his heavenly origin.
- Approaches the Ancient of Days, a figure obviously representing God.
- Receives authority, glory, and sovereign power.
- Is worshipped by people of all nations and languages.
- Possesses an everlasting kingdom.
Ladd concludes that Daniel's son of man is "a heavenly messianic eschatological figure who brings the kingdom to the afflicted saints on earth."
It is clear from the Gospels, however, that the title Son of Man was not widely recognized in Jesus' time as a messianic title. That is probably why Jesus was able to use it as a title to refer to himself. He less often uses the title Son of God -- and that only in the third person. In the same way, Jesus never uses Messiah or Christ to refer to himself, though he acknowledges its use by others (John 4:25-26; Matthew 16:16-17). Even so, he warns his disciples not to tell anyone that he is the Messiah (Matthew 16:20), probably to avoid the political implications of the title and the attention such a title would bring him (Mark 1:45).
But Son of Man, though veiled in its meaning to nearly all Jews of his time, had a clear and explicit meaning for Jesus. Use of this title indicates that Jesus claimed to be "a pre-existent heavenly kind of messiah who has appeared unexpectedly as a man among men." And it is clear from Jesus exchange with the high priest at his trial, that he saw himself as Daniel's "one like a son of man":
"The high priest said to him, 'I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.'
'Yes, it is as you say,' Jesus replied. 'But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.'" (Matthew 26:63-64)
Q1. (Daniel 7:13-14) What attributes does the "one like a
son of man" have in Daniel's prophecy? In what ways does this personage possess
divine elements? What authority does he have? How do we know that Jesus
identified himself with this Son of Man in Daniel?
Q2. (Daniel 7:13-14) Since Jesus is the Son of Man in
Daniel's prophecy, what implications does that have for your obedience, your
worship, your estimation of Jesus' power and glory?
In the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus uses the title of Son of Man in three ways:
- Earthly Son of Man
- Suffering Son of Man
- Apocalyptic or Eschatological Son of Man
He begins his ministry by using Son of Man in a variety of ways. But only after Peter recognizes him as "the Christ, the Son of the living God" at Caesarea Philippi does he begin to share the other aspects of his title, that the Son of Man will suffer and then return in glory. In John's Gospel, Jesus uses the title 12 times in three major themes related to the Son of Man.
- Heavenly Son of Man
- Life-Giving Son of Man
- Glorified Son of Man.
For more detail on this see Appendix 4. The Title Son of Man in the Gospels.
From the Gospels we learn that for Jesus, his role as Son of Man was all encompassing. It included his divinity, his suffering, his authority, his glory, and his return at the end of time.
The remainder of the New Testament contains only two additional references to the Son of Man: Stephen's vision of "heaven open and the Son of Man standing at the right hand of God" at his martyrdom (Acts 7:56) and John's vision of Christ in Revelation, "someone like a Son of Man" walking among the golden lampstands (Revelation 1:13).
Now that we've examined Son of Man, we'll consider a few other titles that include the word "man." While Son of Man is a messianic title, the phrase "son of man" in Daniel hints of the human aspect of this figure. We see Jesus' humanness emphasized several times in Scripture:
Pilate declares Jesus: "Behold, the Man" (ESV, KJV, John 19:5).
"For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all men." (1 Timothy 2:5-6)
Elsewhere Paul has written eloquently of Jesus' divine nature. But here he is speaking about his role as mediator, and so emphasizes his humanness, the "man" who gave himself as a ransom for all "men." We'll consider this role as Mediator in just a moment.
In Paul's comparison between Adam and Christ (which we'll discuss below) Jesus is twice referred to as "the one man Jesus Christ" (Romans 5:15, 17).
One question that has puzzled Christians from earliest times is Jesus' nature. Is he really a human being, or only a divine figure pretending to be human, like the second century Docetist heretics claimed. Or is he a human being who is exalted at his baptism to be divine, like the Arian heretics (and present-day Jehovah Witnesses) believe? Or is he just a human being, whose followers believed and proclaimed to be divine (as many liberals today believe)?
There was considerable debate in the first couple centuries of the Church about this. But as they studied the Scriptures, the resolution began in the Nicene Creed as formulated at the Council of Constantinople in 381 AD.
... in one Lord Jesus Christ,
the only-begotten Son of God
Begotten of his Father before all worlds,
God of God, Light of Light,
Very God of very God,
Begotten, not made,
Being of one substance with the Father,
By whom all things were made;
Who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven,
And was incarnate by the Holy Ghost of the Virgin Mary,
And was made man."
At the First Council of Ephesus in 431 AD, the term "hypostatic union" emerged to clarify the union of Christ's humanity and divinity in one hypostasis, or individual existence. Jesus is both God and man, not one or the other. That is what the Bible teaches -- that Jesus is both God and man.
In the Suffering Servant passage, Jesus is described as a Man of Sorrows, that is, a sorrowful man.
"He was despised and rejected by men;
a man of sorrows, and acquainted with grief;
and as one from whom men hide their faces he was despised,
and we esteemed him not." (Isaiah 53:3)
In his humanity he suffered for us and bore our sins, but in the end, "he shall see the fruit of the travail of his soul and be satisfied" (Isaiah 53:11).
You can sense sorrow in Jesus when he sees gross unbelief in his followers, even his disciples. There is deep sorrow in Jesus on the cross, where he as Sin-Bearer is carrying the weight of all our sins, and cries, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?" (Matthew 27:46).
Yet the earthly Jesus also experienced joy and prayed that this joy might be shared by his disciples (Luke 10:21; John 15:11; 17:13; Hebrews 12:2; cf. Jude 24).
Q3. (Isaiah 53:3) How can Jesus be the Man of Sorrows as
well as the one who finds joy in his Father? How can we experience sorrow
without it coming to dominate our lives?
We also see an identification between Jesus and his archetypical parents, Adam and Eve. In the curse upon the serpent in the Garden of Eden, God says to the serpent, an embodiment of Satan:
"And I will put enmity
Between you and the woman,
And between your seed and her seed;
He shall bruise you on the head,
And you shall bruise him on the heel." (Genesis 3:15, NASB)
"Seed" (KJV) tends to be rendered "offspring" in newer translations (NIV, NRSV). This prophecy is sometimes called by theologians "the protoevangelium," literally, the first gospel. In one sense, "her seed" refers to all of Eve's descendents, all humankind. But the ultimate Offspring of Eve will be bruised (wounded) on the heel by Satan, resulting in physical death, but the Offspring of Eve will bruise Satan on the head, that is, utterly destroy him (1 John 3:8). Jesus passes on this authority to his disciples too:
"Behold, I have given you authority to tread upon serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy; and nothing shall hurt you." (Luke 10:19)
"Then the God of peace will soon crush Satan under your feet." (Romans 16:20a)
Christ is also referred to as the Seed (Galatians 3:16, 19) and seed of Abraham (Hebrews 2:16), indicating that he is the ultimate Jew, the ultimate descendent of Abraham, a Son of Abraham (Matthew 1:1). Since we are "in Christ," we are included in Abraham's seed.
"If you belong to Christ, then you are
and heirs according to the promise." (Galatians 3:29)
To help his readers understand the significance of Jesus to redeem mankind, in two passages Paul contrasts Adam with Jesus. In his Letter to the Roman Church, Paul explains Adam as "a type of the one who was to come" (Romans 5:14), that is Jesus. Through Adam, sin and death entered the world; through Jesus, grace and life (Romans 5:12-15). In the same way that Adam as the prototype man sinned and brought down his descendants after him, so "the one man, Jesus Christ" (Romans 5:15, 17) is the bringer of life to all who are "in him."
When Paul teaches on physical resurrection in his first letter to the Corinthians, he develops this same analogy, in which four new descriptors of Christ are born:
|First Adam||Last Adam|
|Living being||Life-Giving Spirit|
|First man||Second Man|
|Man of dust||Man of Heaven|
Here is Paul's teaching:
"Thus it is written, 'The first man Adam became a living being'; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit. But it is not the spiritual which is first but the physical, and then the spiritual. The first man was from the earth, a man of dust; the second man is from heaven. As was the man of dust, so are those who are of the dust; and as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven. Just as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven." (1 Corinthians 15:45-49)
While our solidarity with the First Adam brought death, our union with the Second Adam brings life and the promise of heaven. This "Man of Heaven" circles back to the heavenly Son of Man, which began this lesson.
This concept of "corporate personality" can be difficult for those of us in cultures which overemphasize individualism. However, the whole idea of being "in Christ," is the same idea.
Jesus is the heavenly Son of Man, a divine figure. He is also Man, the Last Adam. And as such he alone is qualified to stand between God and man to intercede for our salvation. Paul writes:
"For there is one God and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus, who gave himself as a ransom for all men." (1 Timothy 2:5-6)
"Mediator" is mesitēs, "one who mediates between two parties to remove a disagreement or reach a common goal, mediator, arbitrator." The analogy or picture here is two parties that are separated by some issue.
I think that this role of Mediator relates to his role as High Priest that we discuss in Lesson 6. He continually intercedes for us (Hebrews 7:25; Isaiah 53:12; Romans 8:34). And, as we'll see shortly, he is our Advocate before the Father (1 John 2:1).
Incidentally, observe that Paul calls Jesus the "one mediator between God and men." "One" is heis, "a single person or thing, with focus on quantitative aspect, one." Our dear Roman Catholic brothers and sisters have long referred to Mary as the Mediatrix, that is, a mediator of the graces of her Son. Sadly, many of the devout spend more time praying to Mary (a major focus of the rosary prayer), than praying to Jesus. Dear friends, we must honor Mary for her unique role as the mother of Jesus, but we must not look to her to intercede for us or mediate between us and God. Jesus is our One Mediator.
Jesus is also "the Mediator of a New Covenant" (Hebrews 11:24). He is also the our personal mediator with God, the one who negotiates the covenant between the Covenant maker and those he came to save.
Another title from the world of law and covenants is advocate. As we saw in Lesson 2, Jesus is our Counselor as well as Advocate (paraklētos) with the Father. In secular Greek paraklētos is sometimes used in a the sense of a legal assistant advocate in a court setting. The Apostle John tells us:
"My little children, I am writing these things to you so that you may not sin. But if anyone does sin, we have an advocate (paraklētos) with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous." (1 John 2:1, ESV)
The word is translated functionally in the NIV as "one who speaks to the Father on our behalf." From heaven, we read of "the accuser of our brothers, who accuses them before our God day and night, has been hurled down" (Revelation 12:10). Now Jesus is at our side to intercede for us. We are not worthy in our own right, but he, "the Righteous One" is worthy, and we are "in him." Hallelujah!
In our world, an emissary or negotiator, perhaps a Secretary of State or Prime Minister, is sent to resolve the problem and bring the parties together. Jesus is our representative, our Advocate.
The words used in the New Testament for this task are "reconciliation" and "peacemakers."
"When we were God's enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of his Son...." (Romans 5:10)
"God was reconciling the world to himself in Christ, not counting men's sins against them." (2 Corinthians 5:19)
"But now he has reconciled you by Christ's physical body through death to present you holy in his sight." (Colossians 1:22)
Though the New Testament doesn't use the title Reconciler for Jesus, this role is described as him being our Advocate with the Father.
Jesus is called the "Prince of Peace" (Isaiah 9:6) and "the Lord of Peace" (2 Thessalonians 3:16). He said, "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they will be called sons of God" (Matthew 5:9).
Q4. (1 Timothy 2:5-6; 1 John 2:1) In what sense is Jesus
our "one Mediator between God and man"? What happens to this personal
relationship with Jesus when we ask a minister or a saint to intercede for us?
How is Jesus our Advocate before the Father? In what ways are you an advocate
for the powerless in your community? How do you function as a reconciler, a
mediator, a peacemaker as you serve Christ?
Paraklētos can mean "advocate" from parakaleō, "to come alongside" to assist. Another word from this root is paraklēsis, to come alongside to provide comfort.
"Now there was a man in Jerusalem called Simeon, who was righteous and devout. He was waiting for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was upon him." (Luke 2:25)
"Consolation" is paraklēsis, "lifting of another's spirits, comfort, consolation." Here it is in an eschatological sense, where consolation refers to Messianic salvation. We read prophecies of this coming consolation of Israel.
"Comfort, comfort my people, says your
Speak tenderly to Jerusalem,
and proclaim to her that her hard service has been completed,
that her sin has been paid for,
that she has received from the LORD's hand double for all her sins." (Isaiah 40:1-2)
"The Spirit of the Sovereign LORD is on me,
because the LORD has anointed me to preach good news to the poor.
He has sent me to bind up the brokenhearted,
to proclaim freedom for the captives
and release from darkness for the prisoners,
to proclaim the year of the LORD's favor
and the day of vengeance of our God,
to comfort all who mourn,
and provide for those who grieve in Zion--
to bestow on them a crown of beauty instead of ashes,
the oil of gladness instead of mourning,
and a garment of praise instead of a spirit of despair." (Isaiah 61:1-3a)
"Blessed are those who mourn,
for they will be comforted." (Matthew 5:4)
Comfort comes when we have hope. Paul begins his first letter to Timothy with this descriptor of Christ: "Christ Jesus our hope" (1 Timothy 1:1). Jesus is the Son of "the God of hope" (Romans 15:13), he is the hope of the Gentiles (Romans 15:12), he is in us, our "hope of glory" (Colossians 1:27), and his resurrection has given us "a living hope" (1 Peter 1:3).
Two titles are related in that they have to do with God's sending of Jesus to us as gift and apostle. The writer of Hebrews exhorts us,
"Fix your thoughts on Jesus, the apostle and high priest whom we confess." (Hebrews 3:1)
We will look at Jesus as High Priest in Lesson 6. Here we consider him as Apostle. The Greek word is apostolos, from the verb apostellō, "to send." Sometimes in secular Greek it refers to persons who are dispatched for a specific purpose, and the context determines the status or function expressed in such English terms as "ambassador, delegate, messenger." Jesus used the title for the Twelve Disciples whom he especially chose to lead the early church, who were "sent" with a special mission. But Jesus is the ultimate "Sent One." The apostles' mission was a derivative of his own mission to bring salvation to the world. Jesus talks to his Father.
"As you sent me into the world, I have sent them into the world." (John 17:18)
After his resurrection, he commissions his disciples with the same commission as he had received.
"As the Father has sent me, I am sending you." (John 20:21)
We serve because Jesus the Great Apostle of our profession was willing to be sent by the Father and was faithful.
Finally, God sent Jesus to us as a gift, an indescribable gift. Jesus told the Samaritan woman at the well:
"If you knew the gift of God and who it is that asks you for a drink, you would have asked him and he would have given you living water." (John 4:10)
In 2 Corinthians 9:15, Paul calls Jesus God's "indescribable gift" (NIV, NRSV), "inexpressible gift" (ESV), "unspeakable gift" (KJV). This is underscored in the famous verse, John 3:16 -- "For God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten Son...." Jesus is God's gift to us.
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Jesus is the glorious Son of Man prophesied in Daniel, who will set up an everlasting Kingdom. He is also a Man of Sorrows, the Seed of Woman who will crush Satan, the Seed of Abraham, and the Last Adam, the Man from Heaven who brings to us Eternal Life. He is our Mediator between God and Man, our Advocate with the Father, our Reconciler and Prince of Peace, our Hope, our Consolation, and our Indescribable Gift. We are so thankful!
Father, as we consider the titles of Jesus, we see him possessing great glory and power, and yet humbling himself to die for us, to take our sins and give us life; for bridging the gulf between God and man on our behalf. Thank you for sending him. In Jesus' name, we pray. Amen.
Names and Titles of Jesus
- One Like a Son of Mann (Daniel 7:13-14)
- Son of Man (often in the Gospels)
- The Man (John 19:5)
- The Man Christ Jesus (1 Timothy 2:5-6)
- Man of Sorrows (Isaiah 53:3)
- Seed of Woman (Genesis 3:15)
- Seed (Galatians 3:16, 19)
- Seed of Abraham (Hebrews 2:16)
- Last Adam (1 Corinthians 15:45)
- Life-Giving Spirit (NIV, NRSV, ESV; 1 Corinthians 15:45)
- Quickening Spirit (KJV, 1 Corinthians 15:45)
- Second Man (1 Corinthians 15:47)
- Man from/of Heaven (1 Corinthians 15:47, 49)
- Mediator of a New Covenant (Hebrews 11:24)
- One Mediator between God and Men (1 Timothy 2:5)
- Advocate with the Father (ESV, NRSV, KJV, 1 John 2:1)
- Prince of Peace (Isaiah 9:6)
- Lord of Peace (2 Thessalonians 3:16)
- Consolation of Israel (Luke 2:25)
- Our Hope (1 Timothy 1:1)
- Apostle (Hebrews 3:1)
- Indescribable Gift (NIV, NRSV, 2 Corinthians 9:15)
- Inexpressible Gift (ESV, 2 Corinthians 9:15)
- Unspeakable Gift (KJV, 2 Corinthians 9:15)
Songs and Hymns
Songs in this lesson focus around key titles such as Son of Man, the Man, Man of Sorrows, Seed of Woman, Last Adam, Mediator, Advocate, Prince of Peace, and Hope.
- "Celebrate the Child" ("the Child who is the Light ... Godhead and manhood became one ... First born of creation ... Lamb and Lion, God and Man ... Author of Salvation ... Almighty wrapped in swaddling bands"), by Michael Card (© 1989 Birdwing Music)
- "Come, Thou Long Expected Jesus" ("Israel's strength and consolation, Hope of all the earth thou art, dear desire of every nation"), words: Charles Wesley (1745), music: Hyfrydol, Rowland H. Prichard (1830)
- "Everlasting God" ("Our Hope, our Strong Deliverer"), by Brenton Brown, Ken Riley (© 2005 Thankyou Music)
- "Fairest Lord Jesus" ("O Thou of God and man the Son"), words: 17th century, translated from German Joseph A. Seiss (1873); music: Crusader's Hymn, Silesian folk tune
- "Forever Reign" ("You are Hope, You are Hope"), by Scott Ingram, Reuben Morgan (© 2009 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "Hallelujah! What a Savior" ("Man of Sorrows! What a name"), words and music: Philip P. Bliss (1875)
- "Hark, the Herald Angels Sing" ("Hail the heav'nly Prince of Peace ... Second Adam from above, Reinstate us in Thy love ... Rise, the woman's conqu'ring Seed, Bruise in us the serpent's head"), words: Charles Wesley (1739), music: Felix Mendelssohn (1740)
- "I Extol You," by Jennifer Randolph (© 1985 Integrity's Hosanna! Music )
- "I Will Look Up" ("Jesus, Lord of All ... Prince of Peace, Perfect Healer, King of Kings, Mighty Savior"), Chris Brown, Jason Ingram, Mack Brock, Matt Redman, Wade Joye (© 2013 Said And Done Music )
- "Jesus Messiah," by Chris Tomlin, Daniel Carson, Ed Cash, Jesse Reeves (2008 sixsteps Music)
- "Man of Sorrows," by Brooke Ligertwood, Matt Crocker (© 2012 Hillsong Music Publishing)
- "Shout to the Lord" ("My comfort, my shelter"), by Darlene Zschech (© 1993, Darlene Zschech and Hillsong Publishing)
- "You Are Holy" ("Prince of Peace"), by Marc Imboden, Tammi Rhoton (© 1994 Imboden Music)
From Appendix 6. Exercises to Help You Internalize the Names of Jesus, select some activities that will help you internalize the truths of this lesson's names, titles, descriptors, and metaphors. This week, how can you creatively pray, meditate, write, worship, consider, draw or paint, compose, picture, and live out these truths in your community?
Actively participating in these ways will help you grow to be like Christ.
 Huios, BDAG 1025, 2cβ.
 Ladd, Theology, p. 148. This Son of Man figure also appears in the Similitudes of Enoch, a Jewish writing somewhat later than the rest of Enoch. Though there is no evidence that Jesus knew of the Similitudes, for some Jewish circles in Jesus' time, at least, "the Son of Man has become a messianic title for a pre-existent heavenly being who comes to earth with the glorious Kingdom of God" (Ladd, Theology, p. 149).
 Ladd, Theology, p. 152.
 From the Book of Common Prayer, Church of England, 1662.
 "Offspring" (NIV, NRSV, ESV), "seed" (KJV) is zeraʿ, "sowing, seed, offspring" from zāraʿ, "to scatter seed, sow." "Seed" can be used both as semen and offspring (Walter C. Kaiser, TWOT #582a).
 Mesitēs, BDAG 634.
 Heis, BDAG 29, 1aα.
 Liddell-Scott, Greek-English Lexicon.
 Paraklēsis, BDAG 776, 3.
 Apostolos, BDAG 12, 2b.
 The word is anekdiēgētos, "indescribably" in a good sense (BDAG 76). It is a compound word formed from a-, a negative particle, + ekeiegeomai, "to provide detailed information when telling something, tell (in detail) something (BDAG 300).
 Craig A. Evans, "Messianism," in Dictionary of New Testament Background (Inter-Varsity Press, 2000), p. 700. Evans' article provides excellent background into the development of the messianic movement in Israel leading up to Jesus' day.
In-depth Bible study books
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- Apostle Paul: Passionate Discipleship
- Disciple's Guide to the Holy Spirit
- 1, 2, and 3 John
- 1 Peter
- 2 Peter & Jude
- 1 & 2 Thessalonians
- 1 & 2 Timothy
- 1 Corinthians
- 2 Corinthians
- Abraham, Faith of
- Christ Powered Life (Romans 5-8)
- Christmas Incarnation
- Colossians and Philemon
- David, Life of
- Glorious Kingdom, The
- Great Prayers of the Bible
- Jacob, Life of
- Jesus and the Kingdom of God
- JesusWalk: Beginning the Journey
- John's Gospel
- Lamb of God
- Listening for God's Voice
- Lord's Supper
- Luke's Gospel
- Moses the Reluctant Leader
- Names and Titles of God
- Names and Titles of Jesus
- Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
- Resurrection and Easter Faith
- Sermon on the Mount
- Seven Last Words of Christ