2. The Glorious Kingdom of the Son of Man


Audio (29:31)

Christ the King

In Lesson 1 we examined the Glorious Kingdom that Yahweh established in the Sinai desert. Now let's examine that Kingdom in Jesus' ministry.

The Kingdom of God is the single most common theme of Jesus' preaching found in the Synoptic Gospels (Matthew, Mark, and Luke). It is the theme with which Jesus begins his ministry.

"After John was put in prison, Jesus went into Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God. 'The time has come,' he said. 'The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!'" (Mark 1:14-15)

Messiah and the Son of Man

For hundreds of years, Jewish people had been looking forward to the descendant of David, the Messiah, who would deliver them from oppression. Jesus comes proclaiming that this Kingdom of God is "near" (NIV), "has come" (NRSV), "is at hand" (ESV, KJV).[23] They had waited long for this day, but now, "The time has come" (NIV), literally, "the time is fulfilled" (ESV, NRSV, KJV).[24]

What is this Kingdom of God that Jesus announces? It is surely the reign of the Messiah, the Son of David. The disciples gradually became aware that Jesus is this long-expected Messiah. However, it is more that the messianic reign.

It is interesting that Jesus does not publicly declare himself the Messiah. Rather, Jesus' preferred title is "Son of Man," an ambiguous phrase in Jesus' day, a Hebrew way of saying "human being."

The Heavenly Son of Man (Daniel 7:13-14)

There is one passage in the Old Testament, however, where the phrase "son of man" takes on an exalted meaning -- Daniel 7:13-14. And it is in this passage that Jesus sees his identity. Let's examine it in some detail, for in it lie the keys to understanding the Kingdom that Jesus proclaims.

"13  In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. 14  He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed." (Daniel 7:13-14)

Let's consider each aspect of this important vision.

One Like a Son of Man (Daniel 7:13a)

"In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man...." (Daniel 7:13a)

As I mentioned above, it is clear in the Old Testament that the term "son of man" is a Hebraic way of saying "human being." It occurs 107 times in the Hebrew Bible, mostly in the Book of Ezekiel, as God's way of addressing Ezekiel as a man. For example:

"[God] said to me, 'Son of man, stand up on your feet and I will speak to you.'" (Ezekiel 2:1)

We see it in Psalms.

"What is man that you are mindful of him,
the son of man that you care for him?" (Psalm 8:4)

It is also used this way in the Book of Daniel, as God addresses Daniel:

"'Son of man,' he said to me, 'understand that the vision concerns the time of the end.'" (Daniel 8:17)

However, Jesus uses it in a different, exalted sense. He commonly refers to himself as the "Son of Man," and only rarely as the "Son of God."[25] Why is this? I see two main reasons:

  1. Accuracy. Son of Man, drawn directly from the imagery of Daniel 7:13-14, is an accurate description of who Jesus really was and is.
  2. Ambiguity. Son of Man is ambiguous enough that his enemies are not able to seize on the title as blasphemy. Son of Man was not laden with religious or political baggage. If, on the other hand, Jesus had openly called himself Messiah or Son of God, his ministry would have been swiftly cut short by his enemies.

Though "son of man" may seem ambiguous, as we'll see in Daniel 7:13-14, it is a title full of divinity and glory and power. In our passage, Daniel sees one who looks human ("like a son of man") but is in fact the divine heir of the Kingdom of God. By taking the title "Son of Man," Jesus is saying, "I am the Son of Man spoken of in Daniel's prophecy!" Moreover, he confirms this in his trial before the Sanhedrin (Matthew 26:64).

Coming with the Clouds of Heaven (Daniel 7:13b)

Let's continue with the next phrase in Daniel's prophecy:

"In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven." (Daniel 7:13b)

The figure who comes before the Ancient of Days appears to be human, but is "coming with the clouds." As Longman puts it, "he is riding the cloud chariot, which is the prerogative of God alone."[26] See, for example, the following verses:

"Sing to God, sing praise to his name,
extol him who rides on the clouds
-- his name is the LORD --
and rejoice before him." (Psalm 68:4)

He makes the clouds his chariot
and rides on the wings of the wind." (Psalm 104:3b)

"See, the LORD rides on a swift cloud
and is coming to Egypt." (Isaiah 19:1a)

No one else in the Bible but Yahweh himself "comes with the clouds." It is an earmark of divinity!

Later, Jesus mentions "coming on the clouds" as a signature event of his own Second Coming, nearly always using the title "Son of Man," which ties it to Daniel's prophecy.

"They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory." (Matthew 24:30b; Mark 13:26; cf. Luke 21:27)

"You will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven." (Matthew 26:64; Mark 14:62)

"Look, he is coming with the clouds, and every eye will see him...." (Revelation 1:7a)

"I looked, and there before me was a white cloud, and seated on the cloud was one 'like a son of man' with a crown of gold on his head and a sharp sickle in his hand." (Revelation 14:14a)

Approached the Ancient of Days (Daniel 7:13c)

Now the next phrase.

"He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence." (Daniel 7:13c)

In Daniel 7:9, "Ancient of Days" carries the ideas of eternity, with the wisdom of the ages.[27] Ancient of Days clearly denotes Yahweh the King -- seated on a flaming throne, waited on in his court by myriad attendants, books open, judgment rendered. He is seated in all his glory, much like Isaiah saw him:

"In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw the Lord seated on a throne, high and exalted, and the train of his robe filled the temple. 2  Above him were seraphs, each with six wings: With two wings they covered their faces, with two they covered their feet, and with two they were flying. 3  And they were calling to one another: 'Holy, holy, holy is the LORD Almighty; the whole earth is full of his glory.'" (Isaiah 6:1-3)

The Son of Man appears before the Most High God in all his glory and power.

Given Authority, Glory, and Sovereign power (Daniel 7:14a)

"He was given authority, glory and sovereign power." (Daniel 7:14a)

We get something of this flavor in David's address to Yahweh, recounting God's attributes:

"Yours, O LORD, is the greatness and the power and the glory and the victory and the majesty, for all that is in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, O LORD, and you are exalted as head above all." (1 Chronicles 29:11)

Now the awesome Yahweh, Most High God, the holder of all authority, glory, and sovereign power gives these very prerogatives of divinity to this "one like a son of man."

The first gift given by the Ancient of Days to the Son of Man is "authority" (NIV), "dominion" (NRSV, ESV, KJV). The noun is sholṭān, "dominion, sovereignty," usually of God, from shelēṭ, "have power, rule."[28] The one who has authority to reign is the King. But not merely as king of an earthly nation. Just before his ascension, Jesus told his disciples:

"All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations...." (Matthew 28:18b-19a)

The King of the Glorious Kingdom has "all authority in heaven and on earth."

The second gift is "glory." The word usually translated "glory" in the Old Testament is kābôd, "heaviness, glory," which we examined in Lesson 1. However, here the word "glory" is yeqār, "honor," from the root "to be precious."[29] The Son of Man is bestowed with all honor among men. All glory and praise are granted to him, as well as worship, as we see in Daniel 7:14b.

The third gift is "sovereign power" (NIV), "kingship" (NRSV), "kingdom" (ESV, KJV). The word is malkû, "royalty, kingship, kingly authority,"[30] "royalty, reign, kingdom,"[31] "kingship, sovereignty," similar to "kingdom, realm."[32] This is closely related to melek, the Hebrew word for "king."

The Son of Man is given authority, honor, and royal rulership. The Kingdom of God is in his hands.

All Peoples Worshiped Him (Daniel 7:14b)

Next, we read:

"All peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him." (Daniel 7:14b)

The Son of Man is to be the object of worship of everyone on earth. "Worshiped" (NIV), "should serve" (NRSV, ESV, KJV) is pelaḥ, "pay reverence to, serve."[33] Only a deity is worthy of this kind of worship. The clear implication is that this "one like a son of man" is divine.

An Everlasting, Indestructible Kingdom (Daniel 7:14c)

The announcement has one final element.

"His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed." (Daniel 7:14c)

The context of Daniel 7 is that empires and kingdoms of men rise and fall; their end is destruction. However, the dominion[34] or kingdom[35] given to "one like a son of man" is different. This sentence emphasizes the eternal nature of the kingdom in three ways.

  1. Everlasting.[36] This kingdom will last in perpetuity, for eternity.
  2. Will not pass away.[37] Other kingdoms may last a few decades or hundreds of years, but eventually they pass from sight and vanish. Not this one.
  3. Will never be destroyed.[38] Other kingdoms, even great empires, meet destruction before the next great empire. However, this kingdom, the final kingdom, is the great rock that destroys them all and will never itself be destroyed.

  This is the kingdom spoken of in Daniel's interpretation of Nebuchadnezzar's dream.

"In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, nor will it be left to another people. It will crush all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever." (Daniel 2:44)

Q1. (Daniel 7:13-14) What are the elements of Daniel's prophecy of "one like a son of man"? What is he given by the Ancient of Days? What clues do you have to the divinity of "one like a son of man" in Daniel's prophecy?
http://www.joyfulheart.com/forums/topic/1698-q1-daniels-prophecy/

Jesus and the Kingdom

Jesus the Son of Man

Jewish ears probably heard the phrase "kingdom of God" and interpreted it as the restoration of David's kingdom, in fulfillment of the Davidic Covenant in 2 Samuel 7:11-16. And it certainly is! However, in Jesus' mind the Kingdom is infinitely greater than an enduring earthly dynasty. The Kingdom he had in mind was the Kingdom bestowed by the Ancient of Days upon the Son of Man with universal authority, consummate glory, complete rule, and the worship of all peoples.

Jesus clearly declares himself to be Daniel's Son of Man when he responds to the High Priest during his trial:

"The high priest asked him, 'Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?'
And Jesus said, 'I am, and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.'" (Mark 14:61-62)

Jesus is the One who is in single person Son of Man, Messiah, and God, who is worshipped and reigns over all.

Jesus often speaks of the Son of Man.

  1. The Son of Man comes from heaven (John 3:12-13; 6:62).
  2. The Son of Man is Judge of all (John 5:27).
  3. The Son of Man is glorified (John 12:23; 13:31-32).
  4. The Son of Man is lifted up -- both in glory and as the object of faith on the cross, which is his ultimate glory (John 3:14-15; 8:28).
  5. The Son of Man gives himself as an atoning sacrifice for sin (Isaiah 53; Mark 10:45).
  6. The Son of Man returns in glory (Matthew 16:27; 24:30b; 25:31).

Jesus Declares the Kingdom of God

Jesus also speaks extensively about the nature of the Kingdom of God. In the Synoptic Gospels, Jesus teaches in a whole series of parables. Many of these illumine various aspects of the Kingdom of God, beginning, "The kingdom of God is like...." Here are Jesus' parables that focus on the Kingdom of God. Many books have been written about the Kingdom of God, and we can only touch on the parables of the Kingdom here.

  • Parable of the Sower (Matthew 13:1-23; Mark 4:1-25; Luke 8:4-18) on varying receptivity to the message of the Kingdom.
  • Parable of the Tares and the Wheat (Matthew 13:24-30, 36-43; Mark 4:26-34) concerning counterfeits to the true work of God.
  • Parable of the Mustard Seed (Matthew 13:31-32; Mark 4:30-32; Luke 13:18-19), on the relatively small appearance of the Kingdom compared to its large conclusion.
  • Parable of the Yeast (Matthew 13:33), on how the Kingdom, beginning small, eventually effects the large lump of dough.
  • Parable of the Hidden Treasure (Matthew 13:44), on the great value but hiddenness of the Kingdom.
  • Parable of the Pearl of Great Price (Matthew 13:45-16), on the surpassing value of the Kingdom.
  • Parable of the Net (Matthew 13:47-50), on angels dividing the wicked from the righteous on the Last Day.
  • Parable of the Barren Fig Tree (Luke 13:6-9), on the barrenness of Israel.
  • Parable of the Two Sons (Matthew 21:28-31), on the importance of obedience over verbal acknowledgement.
  • Parable of the Tenants (Matthew 21:33-46; Mark 12:1-12; Luke 20:9-19), on the replacement of rebellious Israel with the followers of the Messiah.
  • Parable of the Marriage Banquet (Matthew 22:1-14; Luke 14:15-24), on the rejection of Israel and the invitation to the Gentiles.
  • Parable of Becoming Like Children (Matthew 18:3-4), on the necessity of humility and grace.
  • Parable of the Lost Sheep and Lost Coin (Matthew 18:10-14; Luke 15:3-10), on the seeking nature of God to find people who are lost.
  • Parable of the Prodigal Son (Luke 15:11-32), on the grace of the Father towards those who sin and repent.
  • Parable of the Unmerciful Servant (Matthew 18:21-35), on grace and the necessity of forgiveness in the Kingdom.
  • Parable of the Seed Growing Secretly (Mark 4:26-29), on the hidden but sure growth of the Kingdom.
  • Parable of the Workers in the Vineyard (Matthew 20:1-16), on the reign of grace rather than works in the Kingdom.
  • Parables of the Talents and Minas (Matthew 25:14-30; Luke 19:11-27), on the delay of the coming of the Kingdom and rewards for faithfulness.
  • Parable of the Ten Virgins (Matthew 25:1-13), on the delay of the Kingdom and the importance of faithfulness in the meantime.

Clearly, Jesus' mission was focused on the Kingdom of God. Moreover, I contend that this primary focus was the Glorious Kingdom of the Son of Man, and only secondarily, the restoration of David's Kingdom.

David speaks of this Glorious Kingdom in expansive terms.

"They will tell of the glory of your kingdom
and speak of your might,
so that all men may know of your mighty acts
 and the glorious splendor of your kingdom.
Your kingdom is an everlasting kingdom,
and your dominion endures through all generations." (Psalm 145:11-13a)

Q2. What did the term "Messiah" mean to the Jews? How does Daniel's Son of Man exceed this understanding? Why does Jesus primarily use the title Son of Man rather than Messiah or Son of God?
http://www.joyfulheart.com/forums/topic/1699-q2-messiah-and-son-of-man/

When Does This Glorious Kingdom Begin?

Let's conclude this lesson with the difficult but important question of when this Glorious Kingdom begins. To what time period should we assign Daniel's vision of the Son of Man reigning over the Glorious Kingdom? Here are some of the options:

  1. In eternity past, before the beginning.
  2. During the history represented by the beasts and symbols of Daniel's visions, sometime before Jesus' First Advent as a human being.
  3. At Jesus' baptism, when he is anointed by the Holy Spirit.
  4. At the beginning of his ministry, when Jesus declares, "the Kingdom of God is at hand."
  5. At Jesus' crucifixion, resurrection, and ascension.
  6. At the Millennial Reign of Christ.
  7. At Jesus' Second Coming.

Many books have been written trying to decide this, some taking one position, some another. I will explain how I understand it in the form of six propositions.

1. Jesus is Co-Creator with the Father from the beginning, with vast authority over the creation both of the heavenly beings and the earth. This is timeless, before time began (John 1:1-3; Colossians 1:15-20).

2. Daniel's vision of the Father bestowing all power, glory, honor, and worship upon the Son of Man is also timeless, using the figure of an everlasting reign that shall never end. Though it relates to the rise and fall of empires in Daniel 7, it is not subsequent to those events or in response to them, but independent of them. The Glorious Kingdom, the reign of God and his Son just is. It endures forever independent of human time and events.

3. The Kingdom is present in the person of Jesus the King. When Jesus begins his ministry, he declares, "the Kingdom of God is at hand" (Matthew 4:17) because he, the reigning King of the Universe, is there with them.

"Being asked by the Pharisees when the kingdom of God would come, he answered them, 'The kingdom of God is not coming in ways that can be observed, nor will they say, "Look, here it is!" or "There!" for behold, the kingdom of God is in the midst of you.'" (Luke 17:20-21, ESV)

I think that the KJV and NIV have seriously confused the meaning by translating it, "the kingdom of God is within you." The adverb translated "within" is Greek entos, "inside, within, within the limits of" or "among you, in your midst."[39] "Within" is a pretty good translation in most contexts.

However, here, Jesus' audience consists of hypocritical Pharisees, not true disciples. It is difficult to see how the Kingdom could be within them. Different meanings have been suggested.[40] Here are the two most popular:

  1. The kingdom is essentially God's Reign in the individual soul. This interpretation appeals to people in our psychological and individualistic age. Though the adverb entos can fit this meaning, this interpretation falters at two points: (1) This teaching is not found elsewhere in the Gospels; it is different from Jesus' other teachings on the nature of the Kingdom. And (2) we have no indication that the Pharisees were the sort of people that Jesus would say this about. Elsewhere in the Gospels, they are characterized as legalistic and outward in their observance of the Law, rather than concerned with the inward, subjective holiness that Jesus stressed.[41]
  2. The kingdom is "among you" or "in your midst," that is, it is present in the Person and ministry of Jesus.[42]

I believe the second interpretation is closer to what Jesus meant -- that the Kingdom was present among them in the Presence and Person of Jesus. The Kingdom shows itself as Jesus teaches, gathers disciples, and exercises God's authority here on earth. Of course, the Kingdom is present within us by Jesus' Spirit, that is true, and the Epistles develop the idea of the indwelling Spirit. However, since Jesus doesn't teach an individualistic kingdom anywhere else in the Gospels, I think he intended this saying to be understood in the sense of the Kingdom being "among" or "in the midst" of the Pharisees in his own Person.

Q3. (Luke 17:20-21) How do you understand Jesus' saying, "The Kingdom is within you" or "in your midst"? What does this teach us about Jesus?
http://www.joyfulheart.com/forums/topic/1700-q3-kingdom-in-your-midst/

So far, we have considered three propositions about the timing of the Glorious Kingdom. Now let's consider three more.

4. Each of Jesus' miracles -- and the works of Jesus' disciples, both then and now -- are incidents of the Glorious Kingdom breaking into our world. The Pharisees accuse Jesus of driving out demons by Satan's power (Luke 11:15). Jesus demonstrates the foolishness of their logic ("a house divided against itself shall not stand"), and then explains the implications of the fact that Jesus operates by God's power.

"If I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you." (Matthew 12:28)

Each of Jesus' miracles is a sign of the Kingdom. Through each of them, the glory of the Glorious Kingdom can be seen.

"The first of his miraculous signs, Jesus performed at Cana in Galilee. He thus revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in him." (John 2:11)

5. At Jesus' Second Coming the Kingdom of God will be fully manifest. There will be a time when the kingdom of man will be no more, when Christ's reign is fully recognized. Jesus talks about this time extensively in Matthew 24, Mark 16, and Luke 21.

"At that time the sign of the Son of Man will appear in the sky, and all the nations of the earth will mourn. They will see the Son of Man coming on the clouds of the sky, with power and great glory. And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call, and they will gather his elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other." (Matthew 24:30-31)

In the Book of Revelation we read:

"The seventh angel sounded his trumpet, and there were loud voices in heaven, which said:
'The kingdom of the world has become the kingdom of our Lord and of his Christ, and he will reign for ever and ever.'" (Revelation 11:15)

We'll discuss this in greater detail in Lesson 6.

6. For now, we live with the tension that the Kingdom of God is present in power, but not yet finalized or fully visible on earth. Christ reigns, the Glorious Kingdom is an on-going present reality, and God often breaks into his world in miracles and "God-sightings," but we have not yet reached the consummation. As the writer of Hebrews puts it:

"At present we do not see everything subject to him. But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for everyone." (Hebrews 2:8b-9)

Q4. Is the Kingdom of God present now? In what sense? What are the present limitations of this Kingdom's power, if any? When will the Kingdom of God be fully manifest to all?
http://www.joyfulheart.com/forums/topic/1701-q4-presence-of-the-kingdom/

Lesson for Disciples

We sum up this lesson with a number of truths.

  1. Messiah refers primarily to the descendant of David who is prophesied to reign over the people of Israel and Judah.
  2. The Son of Man prophecy in Daniel 7:13-14 concerns One who reigns over all peoples and has all glory and power.
  3. The Son of Man in Daniel's prophecy is a divine figure who reigns forever and ever.
  4. Jesus strongly identifies with Daniel's "Son of Man" by using it as a self-title.
  5. Jesus' teaching regarding the Kingdom of God concerns the Glorious Kingdom which has always existed in heaven, has revealed itself on earth, and will come complete fruition in the future.

The Glorious Kingdom: A Disciple's Guide to Kingdom Glory and Authority, by Dr. Ralph F. Wilson
Available in PDF and Kindle formats

Six additional propositions help clarify the timing of the coming of the Kingdom.

  1. Jesus is Co-Creator with the Father from the beginning, with vast authority over the creation of both heavenly beings and the earth.
  2. Daniel's vision of the Father bestowing all power, glory, honor, and worship upon the Son of Man is also timeless.
  3. The Kingdom is present in the Person of Jesus the King.
  4. Each of Jesus' miracles, and the works of Jesus' disciples, both then and now, are incidents of the Glorious Kingdom breaking into our world.
  5. At Jesus' Second Coming, the Kingdom of God will be fully manifest.
  6. For now, we live with the tension that the Kingdom of God is present in power, but not yet finalized or fully visible on earth.

Prayer

Jesus, we are in awe that the divine Son of Man, the Co-Creator, the One who reigns forever, walked among us human beings and died to redeem us. Help us to grasp who You really are -- and then live our lives accordingly. In Your holy name, we pray. Amen.

Key Verses

"After John was put in prison, Jesus went into Galilee, proclaiming the good news of God. 'The time has come,' he said. 'The kingdom of God is near. Repent and believe the good news!'" (Mark 1:14-15)

"In my vision at night I looked, and there before me was one like a son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was led into his presence. He was given authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed." (Daniel 7:13-14)

"The high priest asked him, 'Are you the Christ, the Son of the Blessed?'
And Jesus said, 'I am, and you will see the Son of Man seated at the right hand of Power, and coming with the clouds of heaven.'" (Mark 14:61-62)

"If I drive out demons by the Spirit of God, then the kingdom of God has come upon you." (Matthew 12:28)

"The first of his miraculous signs, Jesus performed at Cana in Galilee. He thus revealed his glory, and his disciples put their faith in him." (John 2:11)

"At present we do not see everything subject to him. But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, now crowned with glory and honor because he suffered death, so that by the grace of God he might taste death for every-one." (Hebrews 2:8b-9)

End Notes

[23] Engizō, "to draw near" in a temporal sense, "draw near, come near, approach" (BDAG 270, 2).

[24] The word plēroō, "make full," here, "to complete a period of time, fill (up), complete" (BDAG 827, 2). The Greek verb word occurs in the perfect tense here, meaning that it has been fulfilled in the past and remains in that state up through the present.

[25] Nearly always, he is called "Son of God" by others only, but in his trial before the Sanhedrin he acknowledges that he is indeed the Son of God (Luke 22:70).

[26] Tremper Longman III, The NIV Application Commentary: Daniel (Zondervan, 1999), in loc. He notes that in literature from Ugarit. Baal, the chief deity and primary divine warrior of that culture, is often called the "Rider on the Clouds."

[27] "Ancient" is the adjective ʿattîq, "advanced, aged" (BDB). Derivatives of the Hebrew root include the ideas of value and eminence, "old, aged" (Holladay, p. 417). "Days" is yôm, "day" (TWOT #2762).

[28] Sholṭān, Holladay, p. 423.

[29] Yeqār, BDB.

[30] Malkû, BDB.

[31] Malkû, TWOT #2929c.

[32] Malkû, Holladay, p. 411.

[33] Pelaḥ, BDB. We saw this verb previously in 3:12, 14, 17, 18 regarding worshipping the golden image and 6:16, 20, the God that Daniel serves continually. From the original meaning of plowing a field came the concept here of working hard at worship or service to a deity (Charles D. Isbell, TWOT #2940). "Serve (God)" (Holladay, p. 417).

[34] "Dominion" is sholṭān, which we saw in 7:13, "dominion, sovereignty," usually of God. From shelēṭ, "have power, rule" (BDB), "dominion, lordship" (Holladay, p. 423).

[35] "Kingdom" is malkû, which we saw in verse 13 and 14a: "royalty, reign, kingdom" (BDB), "kingship, sovereignty," similar to "kingdom, realm" (Holladay, p. 411).

[36] "Everlasting" is ʿālam, "perpetuity, antiquity" (BDB), "remote time, eternity" (Holladay, p. 416).

[37] "Pass away" is ʿădâʾ, "pass away" (BDB), "go away, vanish" (Holladay, p. 415).

[38] "Destroyed" is the Hithpael stem of ḥabal, "be destroyed," see also 2:44 and 6:26 (BDB), "be destroyed, perish" (Holladay, p. 405).

[39] Entos, BDAG 340.

[40] Some scholars have suggested the meaning to be that the kingdom is "within your reach," that is, attainable if you go the right way about it. I. Howard Marshall, Commentary on Luke (New International Greek Testament Commentary; Eerdmans, 1978), p. 655, notes that this view was supported by a study by C.H. Roberts of the usage in the papyri, meaning, "in the hands of, in the control of, within the power of," hence meaning here "within your reach" or "within your grasp." But another interpretation of the papyri usage is possible. H. Riesenfeld and A. Wikgren suggest that the meaning in the papyri is rather, "in the house of," that is, "in your domain, among you." Marshall, Luke, p. 655, sees this as making good sense, so "Jesus is speaking of the presence of the kingdom of God among men, possibly as something within their grasp if they will only take hold of it."

[41] See NIV, KJV. Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke (The New International Commentary on the New Testament; Eerdmans, 1997), p. 630, fn. 54. Also Ladd, Theology of the NT, p. 121.

[42] So, Moffatt; RSV; Henry Alford, Greek NT, 1:609, "(already) among you"; Morris, Luke, p. 359; Green, Luke, p. 630; BDAG 340-41 sees this as patterned after Isaiah 45:14, with entos in the sense of "'among you, in your midst,' either now or suddenly in the near future."


Copyright © 1985-2017, Ralph F. Wilson. <pastor@joyfulheart.com> All rights reserved. A single copy of this article is free. Do not put this on a website. See legal, copyright, and reprint information.

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