References and Abbreviations


David Noel Freedman (editor-in-chief), The Anchor Bible Dictionary (Doubleday, 1992)


Walter Bauer and Frederick W. Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Third Edition; based on a previous English edition by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker; University of Chicago Press, 1957, 1979). This is the standard NT Greek-English Lexicon.


Walter Bauer, F. Wilbur Gingrich, and Frederick W. Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Second Edition; based on a previous English edition by W.F. Arndt and F.W. Gingrich; University of Chicago Press, 1957, 1979).


William Barclay, The Gospel of Luke (The Daily Study Bible Series; Westminster Press, 1953, revised edition 1975)

Blass, Debrunner, Funk

F. Blass and A. Debrunner, translated and revised by Robert W. Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (University of Chicago Press, 1961)


Joel B. Green and Scot McKnight (editors), Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (InterVarsity Press, 1992)


Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke (The New International Commentary on the New Testament; Eerdmans, 1997)

Gospel Parallels Burton H. Throckmorton, Jr. (ed.) Gospel Parallels: A Synopsis of the First Three Gospels (Thomas Nelson, 1949, 1957, 1992). Section numbers are helpful for those studying Luke in conjunction with the accounts in the other Synoptic Gospels.

Geoffrey W. Bromiley (general editor), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, 1979-1988; fully revised from the 1915 edition)

Jeremias, Jerusalem

Joachim Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus (Fortress Press/SCM Press 1969)

Jeremias, Parables

Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus (Scribners/SCM, 1972)


Henry George Liddell and Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon (Ninth edition, 1940, with a Supplement, 1968; Oxford). Online version through Perseus.

Edersheim, Life and Times

Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (2 volume edition; Eerdmans, 1969, reprinted from the third edition, 1886)

Edersheim, Temple

Alfred Edersheim, The Temple: Its Ministry and Services as They Were at the Time of Christ (Eerdmans, 1960; reprinted from 1874 edition)


I. Howard Marshall, Commentary on Luke (New International Greek Testament Commentary; Eerdmans, 1978)


Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (Tenth Edition; Merriam-Webster, 1993)


Bruce M. Metzger, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament (United Bible Societies, 1971, 1995)


George Foot Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: the Age of Tannaim (Hendrickson, 1997, reprinted from 1927 Harvard University Press edition), 2 volumes


Leon Morris, The Gospel According to St. Luke (Tyndale NT Commentaries; Eerdmans, 1974)


Colin Brown (general editor), The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Zondervan, 1975-1978; translated with additions and revisions from Theologisches Begriffslexikon zum Neuen Testament, 1967-1971, three volume edition)

Shorter Lexicon

F. Wilbur Gingrich, revised by Frederick W. Danker, Shorter Lexicon of the Greek New Testament (an abridgement with some revision of the Bauer, Arndt, and Gingrich, Greek-English Lexicon [BAGD] above; Second Edition; University of Chicago Press, 1983)

Strack and Billerbeck

H.L. Strack und P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch (München, 1956).


Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich (editors), Geoffrey W. Bromiley (translator and editor), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Eerdmans, 1964-1976; translated from Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, ten volume edition)


Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Associated Publishers and Authors, n.d., reprinted from 1889 edition)

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