References and Abbreviations


David Noel Freedman (editor-in-chief), The Anchor Bible Dictionary (Doubleday, 1992)


Walter Bauer and Frederick W. Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Third Edition; based on a previous English edition by W.F. Arndt, F.W. Gingrich, and F.W. Danker; University of Chicago Press, 1957, 1979). This is the standard NT Greek-English Lexicon.


Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs (eds.), A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907). Used in an electronic edition.


Friedrich Blass, Albert Debrunner, and Robert W. Funk, A Greek Grammar of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (University of Chicago Press, 1961)

Brown, John

Raymond E. Brown, The Gospel According to John (The Anchor Bible, volumes 29 and 29A; Doubleday, 1966)

Dana and Mantey

H.E. Dana and Julius R. Mantey, A Manual Grammar of the Greek New Testament (Macmillan, 1927)


Joel B. Green and Scot McKnight (editors), Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels (InterVarsity Press, 1992)

Green, Luke

Joel B. Green, The Gospel of Luke (The New International Commentary on the New Testament; Eerdmans, 1997)

France, Matthew

R.T. France, The Gospel of Matthew (New International Commentary on the New Testament; Eerdmans, 2007)


Geoffrey W. Bromiley (general editor), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, 1979-1988; fully revised from the 1915 edition)

Jeremias, Jerusalem

Joachim Jeremias, Jerusalem in the Time of Jesus (Fortress Press/SCM Press 1969)

Jeremias, Parables

Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus (Scribners/SCM, 1972)


King James Version (Authorized Version, 1611)

Life & Times

Alfred Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah (2 volume edition; Eerdmans, 1969, reprinted from the third edition, 1886)

Marshall, Luke

I. Howard Marshall, Commentary on Luke (New International Greek Testament Commentary; Eerdmans, 1978)


Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (Tenth Edition; Merriam-Webster, 1993)


George Foot Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era: the Age of Tannaim (Hendrickson, 1997, reprinted from 1927 Harvard University Press edition), 2 volumes

Morris, Matthew

Leon Morris, The Gospel According to Matthew (Pillar Commentary series; Eerdmans, 1992)

Morris, Luke

Leon Morris, The Gospel According to St. Luke (Tyndale NT Commentaries; Eerdmans, 1974)


Colin Brown (general editor), The New International Dictionary of New Testament Theology (Zondervan, 1975-1978; translated with additions and revisions from Theologisches Begriffslexikon zum Neuen Testament, 1967-1971, three volume edition)

NASB New American Standard Bible (The Lockman Foundation, 1960-1988)


New International Version (International Bible Society, 1973, 1978)


New Jerusalem Bible (Darton, Longman & Todd Ltd, 1985)


New Revised Standard Version (Division of Christian Education of the National Council of Churches of Christ, USA, 1989)


A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures in the New Testament (The Sunday School Board of the Southern Baptist Convention, 1932-33, renewed 1960). Used in an electronic edition.

Strack and Billerbeck

H.L. Strack und P. Billerbeck, Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch (München, 1956).


Gerhard Kittel and Gerhard Friedrich (editors), Geoffrey W. Bromiley (translator and editor), Theological Dictionary of the New Testament (Eerdmans, 1964-1976; translated from Theologisches Wörterbuch zum Neuen Testament, ten volume edition)


Joseph Henry Thayer, Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament (Associated Publishers and Authors, n.d., reprinted from 1889 edition)

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