Disciple's Guide to the Holy Spirit
Beginning the Journey (for new Christians).
1, 2, and 3 John
1 & 2 Thessalonians
1 & 2 Timothy
2 Peter, Jude
7 Last Words of Christ
Christ Powered Life (Rom 5-8)
David, Life of
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Listening for God's Voice
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Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
Sermon on the Mount
#5. Not Willing that Any Should Perish (2 Peter 3:1-18)by Dr. Ralph F. Wilson
Fra Angelico. Peter Martyr Enjoins Silence. c.1441. Fresco inside a monk's cell, 108 x 145. Museo di San Marco, Florence, Italy. Larger image.
2 Peter 3:1-18
 Dear friends, this is now my second letter to you. I have written both of them as reminders to stimulate you to wholesome thinking.  I want you to recall the words spoken in the past by the holy prophets and the command given by our Lord and Savior through your apostles.
 First of all, you must understand that in the last days scoffers will come, scoffing and following their own evil desires.  They will say, "Where is this 'coming' he promised? Ever since our fathers died, everything goes on as it has since the beginning of creation."  But they deliberately forget that long ago by God's word the heavens existed and the earth was formed out of water and by water.  By these waters also the world of that time was deluged and destroyed.  By the same word the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.
 But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day.  The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance.
 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare.
 Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives  as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming. That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat.  But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness.
 So then, dear friends, since you are looking forward to this, make every effort to be found spotless, blameless and at peace with him.  Bear in mind that our Lord's patience means salvation, just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him.  He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.
 Therefore, dear friends, since you already know this, be on your guard so that you may not be carried away by the error of lawless men and fall from your secure position.  But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen.
The false teachers have scoffed at Christ's Second Coming. In response Peter has shared with his readers his own eyewitness experience of Jesus' transfiguration in glory. Now he seeks to assure them that Jesus' promise of his return in glory is also reliable.
Reminders to Stimulate Your Minds (3:1-2)
He has just finished a strong denunciation of the false teachers who proclaim Christian liberty but live in flagrant immorality. Now his tone softens as he addresses his readers who are faithfully following Christ:
"Dear friends, this is now my second letter to you. I have written both of them as reminders to stimulate you to wholesome thinking. I want you to recall the words spoken in the past by the holy prophets and the command given by our Lord and Savior through your apostles. (3:1-2)
He mentions that this is a second letter. The first letter probably isn't 1 Peter, but a letter that is now lost to us. 1 Peter is a general letter intended for a number of churches. But 2 Peter is a more personal epistle in which he knows the recipients and has spoken to them before and now writes mainly by way of reminder.
It's interesting how many times in this short letter that the themes of remembering and reminding are found -- 1:12-13, 15, 19; and 3:1-2. Generally, sermons at established churches aren't teaching new doctrine, but reminding believers of what they already know and seeking to motivate them to put into action what they know.
So it is here. Peter says he wants to "stimulate you to wholesome thinking." "Stimulate" (NIV), "stir up" (KJV), and "arouse" (NRSV) translate the Greek verb diegeirō, "wake up, arouse someone who is asleep." Figuratively, "arouse, stir up." Peter isn't questioning their devotion to Christ. He is building on their "sincere intention" (NRSV) or "pure minds" (KJV).
Q1. (2 Peter 3:1-2) Why are reminders so important for Christians? How do
you remind yourself of God's promises? How do you remind others?
Peter reminds them, however, that he is not communicating mere human opinions, but the authoritative words of the prophets and the command of Jesus himself -- communicated "through your apostles."
"Through your apostles," is a curious phrase for an apostle himself to write. Some see this as a sign that Peter didn't actually write this epistle. I don't agree. "Your apostles" probably refers to those apostles who originally preached the gospel to his readers and were directly responsible in founding the churches in their area. That is the way Clement uses "our apostles," to refer to the apostles responsible for founding the Roman church. In other words, Peter's teaching and the other apostles' teaching is reliable and authoritative, in contrast to the new doctrines of the false teachers.
False Teachers Scoff at Christ's Coming (3:3-4)
Now Peter turns directly to the subject of Christ's coming.
"First of all, you must understand that in the last days scoffers will come, scoffing and following their own evil desires. They will say, 'Where is this "coming" he promised? Ever since our fathers died, everything goes on as it has since the beginning of creation.'" (3:3-4)
"Scoffers" is the Greek noun empaiktēs, "mocker, scoffer" while the word "scoffing" is a related noun empaigmonē, "an act of ridicule or derision, mocking." Scoffers, false teachers, false prophets, and those who would deceive and divide the flock were to be expected -- Jesus, Paul, John, James, and Jude all warn of them. We shouldn't be surprised to see them. It's sad, though, to see scoffers among the clergy, those who are charged with teaching the apostolic doctrine and pointing people to faith.
One source of scoffing is about the Second Coming of Christ. Some professors I've had and theological books I've read discard the doctrine of Christ's coming as the naïve hope of the early church, a mistaken expectation. That's exactly what the false teachers said in Peter's day. In effect, they say: It hasn't happened yet, and it ain't going to happen at all! Things are going on just as they always have.
People scoff today, whether out of intellectual arrogance or a kind of spiritual snobbery. It isn't politically correct to believe in judgment and sin. What is sin anyway? they sneer. Spirituality is in, but miracles don't fit with our scientific worldview. However, Jesus' return will be both a miracle and the beginning of terrible judgment for those who have not believed in him.
Jesus himself said to anticipate a delay in his return (Luke 12:45). He said to expect him to return when everything seems normal -- in the midst of "marrying and giving in marriage" (Matthew 24:37-44). "The Son of Man will come at an hour when you do not expect him" (Matthew 24:44). Yes, the disciples expected Jesus to return "soon" (1 Corinthians 7:29; Revelation 1:1; 2:16; 3:11; 22:6-7; James 5:8-9). But as the apostolic age came towards its end, impatience began to develop (1 Thessalonians 4; 1 Corinthians 15; 2 Thessalonians 2:1-3; Hebrews 10:36-37; James 5:7-9). Clement of Rome (about 95 AD) faced the same kind of impatience, and wrote, "Wretched are the double-minded who doubt in their soul and say, 'These things we heard in the days of our fathers also, and, behold, we have grown old and none of them has befallen us.'"
Just what is this "coming"? "Coming" is the Greek noun parousia, "arrival as the first stage in presence, coming, advent." Parousia was sometimes used as a technical word "for the arrival or visit of the king or emperor" and can be traced from the Ptolemaic period into the second century AD. "Advent coins were struck after a parousia of the emperor." The word is used a number of times in the New Testament to refer to Christ's coming: Matthew 24:3, 27, 37, 39; 1 Thessalonians 2:19; 4:15; 5:23; 2 Thessalonians 2:1, 8-9; James 5:7-8; 2 Peter 1:16; 1 John 2:28.
The subject of Christ's Second Coming isn't a little doctrine tucked away in an obscure place. It is taught or referred to in every book in the New Testament! A belief in Christ's coming is central to the Christian hope.
The Power of God's Word (3:5-7)
The false teachers had claimed that "everything goes on as it has since the beginning of creation" (verse 4). Peter refutes this claim by citing the flood at the time of Noah which brought unexpected judgment upon an entire generation:
"But they deliberately forget that long ago by God's word the heavens existed and the earth was formed out of water and by water. By these waters also the world of that time was deluged and destroyed. By the same word the present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men." (3:5-7)
When Peter speaks of water, he refers to the watery chaos out of which the world was formed at God's word: "Let there be...." (Genesis 1:2-6). Water was involved in the creation of the world, Peter argues, and was involved in its destruction in Noah's time. God's word, which brought about creation, he continues, will also bring about judgment and punishment.
Words of Destruction (3:7-13)
Peter's point is, though the false teachers scoff at the prospect of God's sudden judgment and the coming of Christ, that terrible destruction is certainly coming. He uses a number of words in these verses to describe this destruction. Follow these with me for a moment:
- "Destroyed" (NIV) or "perished" (KJV, NRSV) at verses 6 and 9 is the Greek verb apollumi, "perish, be ruined, be lost." It is used of drowning at sea, being slain by the sword, and is used in the New Testament especially of eternal death (John 3:16; 10:28; 17:12; Romans 2:12).
- "Destruction" (NIV, NRSV) or "perdition" (KJV) in verse 7 is the Greek noun apōleia, the noun form of apollumi above. It means "the destruction that one experiences, annihilation both complete and in process, ruin."
- "Destroyed" (NIV), "melt" (KJV), and "be dissolved" (NRSV) in verses 10, 11, and 12 is the common Greek verb luo, which means here "to reduce something by violence into its components, destroy." It is used of a building being torn down, the stern of a ship breaking up in a storm, and, here, the parts of the universe being broken up and destroyed in the final conflagration.
While we're at it, let's look at the words which describe the terrible fiery cleansing of the universe before the new heavens and new earth emerge:
- "Disappear" (NIV) or "pass away" (KJV, NRSV) in verse 10 is the common Greek verb parerchomai, which here means, "to come to an end and so no longer be there, pass away, disappear."
- The phrases "Destroyed by fire" (NIV), "melt with fervent heat" (KJV), and "be dissolved with fire" (NRSV) in verses 10 and 12 render the Greek verb kausoō, "be consumed by heat, burn up."
- "Laid bare" (NIV), "burned up" (KJV), and "disclosed" (NRSV) at the end of verse 10 is the Greek verb heuriskō, which means here, "to discover intellectually through reflection, observation, examination, or investigation, find, discover." We see a similar "examination by fire" in 1 Corinthians 3:13: "Every man's work shall be made manifest: for the day shall declare it, because it shall be revealed by fire; and the fire shall try every man's work of what sort it is."
- "By fire" (NIV), "being on fire" (KJV), and "set ablaze" (NRSV) in verse 12 is the Greek verb puroō (from which we get our word "pyromaniac"), "to cause to be set on fire, burn."
- "Melt" in verse 12 is the Greek verb tēkō, "to cause something to become liquid, melt, dissolve."
I hope your eyes haven't glazed over with all that Greek. I've taken time to define these words all together so that you can catch a glimpse of the holocaust of utter destruction that Christ will bring with him when he returns. Until we understand the deadly seriousness and devastation of judgment -- what it means to "perish" -- we can't appreciate salvation very much. Yes, in years gone by, hell was preached "hot" and overdone, I'll agree. But these days we're so afraid to offend anyone that we ignore the awesomeness of judgment portrayed in passages such as these.
Q2. (2 Peter 3:7-13). Why is it important for us to understand what it
means to "perish"? Why are these truths underemphasized in our day? What effect
does that have on us? How can we get an understanding of judgment into proper
balance in our churches and teaching?
God's Different Time Scale (3:8-9a)
Now that we've defined some words, let's get back to Peter's teaching:
"But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness." (3:8-9a)
We might call the Lord "slow" (NIV, NRSV) or "slack" (KJV) in keeping his promise to return,, but God measures time on a different time scale altogether. We humans have a scale of promptness based on what culture we're in. Time is measured differently in the US than it is in Latin America, for example. God is eternal, Peter is saying. We might measure time by a lifetime; he measures it by "forever." Peter is alluding to Psalm 90:4:
"For a thousand years in your sight
are like a day that has just gone by,
or like a watch in the night."
Isaiah referred to the Lord as "the high and lofty one who inhabits eternity, whose name is Holy" (Isaiah 57:15, NRSV).
"'For my thoughts are not your thoughts, neither are your ways my ways,' declares the Lord. 'As the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways and my thoughts than your thoughts'" (Isaiah 55:8-9)
When we judge God's promises by our own very limited perspective we err as much as a child learning his multiplication tables trying to critique the mathematical equations that govern a space launch.
Patience, not Wanting Any to Perish (3:9b)
Why has the Lord taken so long to get around to Christ's return? Peter attributes it to God's patience:
He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance." (3:9b)
Peter teaches us three very important truths in this verse:
First, God is patient with you."Is patient" (NIV, NRSV) and "is longsuffering" (KJV) is the Greek verb makrothumeō, "to bear up under provocation without complaint, be patient, forbearing." The word is formed from two words, makro, "long," and thumos, "spirit, breath." The word means literally, "having a long spirit" -- we would say having a "long fuse." Patience is a virtue. We Christians are told to have patience, to be patient (Ephesians 4:2; 1 Thessalonians 5:14; James 5:7-8). Aren't you glad that God practices patience toward you?
Second, God doesn't want anyone to perish(apollumi), that is, suffer eternal destruction, death, and separation from God. This truth is embodied in the most commonly memorized verse in the New Testament:
"For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believes in him should not perish (apollumi), but have everlasting life." (John 3:16)
When we hear about destruction and judgment, we sometimes think of God as an angry deity just waiting for the chance to swat us down like pesky flies. Nothing could be further from the truth. Though God is just and must judge sin, he loves us and desires with all his heart that we shouldn't die in our sins. Centuries ago, Jonathan Edwards preached a famous sermon, "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God" and many were converted. God has reason to be angry with sin. But the good news is that Jesus proclaimed a new word: "Sinners in the Hands of a Loving God." That's why the Father sent Jesus to die for sins on our behalf, the sins we have committed. God won't prevent us from perishing if we set our mind to it, but his heart and mind are against it. That's grace. That's love. That's longsuffering. And that's why Jesus hasn't returned yet for the final judgment.
Third, God wants us all to reach repentance. The Greek noun is metanoia, literally "a change of mind" from meta, "change" and noeō, "perceive with the mind." The word also contains the nuance of 'remorse.'" Here it means "repentance, turning about, conversion." There's a teaching called "universalism" floating around which contends that, in the end, everyone will be saved, even the devil -- that God is too merciful to allow anyone to perish. Those who teach this forget that God's desire is for all to reach a place of repentance so that they might not perish. America has largely removed the concepts of sin and repentance from the message of Christianity, and in the process, emasculated the Gospel of its truth and power to rescue (that is, "save") men and women from sin.
Q3. (2 Peter 3:9) According to Peter, why has Christ's coming been
delayed? What does this teach us about God?
Q4. (2 Peter 3:9) Why does our culture resist the ideas of sin and
repentance? Can there be salvation without repentance? Can you think of a time
in your own life when repentance was difficult for you? Why was it difficult?
Sudden Destruction at Christ's Coming (3:10)
We've already defined the words describing destruction that are used in verse 10:
"But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare." (3:10)
Peter teaches, as Jesus had taught him, that Christ's coming will be "like a thief," that is, unexpected and sudden (Matthew 24:43 || Luke 12:39; 1 Thessalonians 5:2, 4; Revelation 3:3; 16:15).
Christ's coming will usher in "the day of the Lord" (verse 10) and the "day of God" (verse 12). This term was used by the prophets and apostles to identify the time when God's judgment would come with awful terror (Isaiah 2:12; 5:30; 13:6, 9; Jeremiah 30:7; 46:10; Ezekiel 13:5; Joel 1:15; 2:1-2, 31; 3:14; Amos 5:18; Zephaniah 1:14-15; Malachi 4:1, 5; 1 Corinthians 1:8; 5:5; 2 Corinthians 1:8, 14; Philippians 1:6, 10; 2:16; Jude 1:6).
After Christ's coming, Peter teaches, the earth and heavens will be destroyed by fire. This is the time when "everything done on it [the earth] will be disclosed" (heuriskō), fulfilling Jesus' prophecy, "There is nothing concealed that will not be disclosed, or hidden that will not be made known" (Matthew 10:26). Everything will be disclosed before the judgment seat of God (Revelation 20:11-15).
Living Holy and Godly Lives (3:11-12a)
Now Peter draws an ethical lesson from this prediction of judgment:
"Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming." (3:11-12a)
He's saying, If you don't want to be judged and destroyed along with the world, then you need to live holy and godly lives, lives that anticipate and look forward to Christ's coming and judgment. "Holy" means "set apart to God" and from sin, while "godly" refers to "devoutness, piety, godliness." Don't mistake this for a works-based salvation. Rather, Peter is underscoring the truth that the way we live our lives reflect our faith much more accurately than do our words.
But look at this! Peter teaches that our holy and godly lives actually speed up or hasten Christ's coming! "Speed" (NIV), "hasting unto" (KJV), and "hastening" (NRSV) translate the Greek verb speudō, "to hurry, hasten," here, "to cause something to happen or come into being by exercising special effort, hasten." "In other words," says Green, "the timing of the advent is to some extent dependent upon the state of the church and of society."
Q5. (2 Peter 3:11-12, 14-16) What effect should a belief in Christ's
return and coming judgment have on your life? What effect does an underemphasis
on Christ's return have on a Christian's life?
A New Heaven and a New Earth (3:12b-13)
Now Peter contrasts the destruction of the old with the re-creation of the new:
"That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat. But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness." (3:12b-13)
We don't focus, or "look forward to" the destruction and judgment. We are longing for the new heavens and the new earth, cleansed from sin and reconstituted. Here righteousness is at last "at home" (NRSV).
Consider these words from Revelation:
"Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. And I heard a loud voice from the throne saying, 'Now the dwelling of God is with men, and he will live with them. They will be his people, and God himself will be with them and be their God. He will wipe every tear from their eyes. There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain, for the old order of things has passed away.' He who was seated on the throne said, 'I am making everything new!'" (Revelation 21:1-5)
In this peaceful state Isaiah's prophecy of the days of the Messiah will finally be fulfilled:
The wolf shall live with the lamb,
the leopard shall lie down with the kid,
the calf and the lion and the fatling together,
and a little child shall lead them.
The cow and the bear shall graze,
their young shall lie down together;
and the lion shall eat straw like the ox.
The nursing child shall play over the hole of the asp,
and the weaned child shall put its hand on the adder's den.
They will not hurt or destroy
on all my holy mountain;
for the earth will be full of the knowledge of the Lord
as the waters cover the sea." (Isaiah 11:6-9; compare Isaiah 65:25)
That, my dear friends, is what we have to look forward to in the new heaven and new earth where righteousness dwells!
Don't Presume on God's Patience (3:14-16)
Peter has called his readers to live godly and holy lives in anticipation of Christ's coming. Now he renews the call.
"So then, dear friends, since you are looking forward to this, make every effort to be found spotless, blameless and at peace with him. Bear in mind that our Lord's patience means salvation just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him." (3:14-15)
"Make every effort" (NIV), "be diligent" (KJV), and "strive" (NRSV) translate a now-familiar verb, spoudazō, which we saw also in 2 Peter 1:5, 10, and 15 -- "be zealous, be eager, take pains, make every effort!" Zealous for what? Holiness and righteousness:
- To be found spotless
- To be found blameless
- To be found at peace with God
We can't continue to live in a pigpen and be spotless. We must make every effort to get our lives cleaned up. Of course, we're not saved by our own righteousness. But we are saved to become righteous, to live out God's righteousness in this world.
Peace with God. Are you at peace with God now? Is there something between you and God? Is there anger or resentment or unforgiveness? Is there a broken promise? Now is the time to make every effort to make it right and enjoy a peace-filled fellowship with God, unhindered by unconfessed, unrepented sin.
We are not without blame, of course. That is why Christ had to die for our sins. But now we are to live lives dedicated (holy) to God.
Our Dear Brother Paul (3:15b-16)
In verse 15 Peter mentions the Apostle Paul as his "dear brother":
"... Just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him. He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction." (3:15b-16)
If 2 Peter was written from Rome as we believe, it is likely that Peter and Paul were together in Rome at the same time, just before they were both martyred at the hands of Nero about 63 AD. They had met in Jerusalem, introduced by Barnabas years before (Acts 9:27; Galatians 1:18). Their paths had crossed in Antioch (Galatians 2:11-14) and perhaps elsewhere. Now they were together -- at least in the same city -- and considered each other beloved brothers.
Peter acknowledges that the false teachers had twisted and distorted Paul's letters, related to God's patience and salvation. Perhaps they were distorting Paul's similar teaching that God had delayed Christ's coming out of patience to give time for repentance (Romans 2:4; compare 3:25; 9:22; 11:22).
It's interesting that the Apostle Peter seems to put Paul's letters alongside "the other Scriptures," that is, the authoritative books of the Old Testament. Green says, "There can be no question that long before AD 60 Christian writings were being read in church alongside the Old Testament, and consequently were well on their way to being rated as equivalent in value to it."
Be on Guard against False Teachers (3:17-18)
2 Peter concludes with the following verse. We'll look at the conclusion of the Letter of Jude next week:
"Therefore, dear friends, since you already know this, be on your guard so that you may not be carried away by the error of lawless men and fall from your secure position. But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen." (3:17-18)
Peter warns them again to be on their guard against false teachers, lest they "fall from your secure position." "Secure position" (NIV), "steadfastness" (KJV), and "stability" (NRSV) is the Greek noun stērigmos, literally "standing still." Elsewhere it is used of the fixed position of the stars and the steadiness of a beam of light. Here it means either "a state of security, safe position" or "firm commitment to conviction or belief, steadfastness." Don't leave your place of stability in Christ, warns Peter, to fall into the error of the lawless libertines, false teachers who will lead you away from Christ.
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Rather, he urges his readers to grow in both grace and knowledge, in both rejoicing in Christ's free gift and in knowing him.
Finally, he concludes with a doxology (literally "a word of glory or praise") to Jesus Christ -- a doxology that would only be appropriately directed to God himself, as Peter (and we Christians) believe Jesus to be. "To him be the glory both now and to the day of eternity. Amen."
Father, in the midst of all life's struggles, you offer the things that really count -- peace with you, your graciousness towards me, and a promise of the future where righteousness dwells supreme in a new world. I do look forward to your coming, Lord Jesus! Place an even greater expectation within me, that my life and behavior might reflect my hope. In Jesus' name, I pray. Amen.
"The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. He is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance." (2 Peter 3:9)
Standard References http://www.jesuswalk.com/1peter/refs.htm
- BDAG 243.
- These two words in Greek are the noun dianoia, "mind as a mode of thinking, disposition, thought, mind" (BDAG 234) and the adjective eilikrinēs, "sincere, without hidden motives or pretense, pure" with a basic meaning of "unmixed, without alloy," such as might be pure silver, without filler alloys (BDAG 283).
- 1 Clement xliv.1. See Green 136-137.
- BDAG 323.
- Matthew 24:11; Acts 20:29; 1 Timothy 4:1; 2 Timothy 3:1-5, 13; 4:3; James 5:3; 1 John 2:18, 26; 4:1; and Jude 18.
- 1 Clement xiii, cited in Green 139.
- BDAG 780.
- A.T. Robertson, Word Pictures on 1 Corinthians 15:23, citing Deissmann, Light from the Ancient East, p. 368. Greek papyri show that the word was commonly used of the official state visit of a king (Green 93).
- At other times, instead of the noun parousia, the common verb erchomai, "come" is used to refer to Christ's coming (such as Revelation 22:7, 12, 20).
- BDAG 116.
- BDAG 127.
- BDAG 607. The basic meaning of luo is to "loose, untie."
- BDAG 775-776.
- BDAG 536.
- BDAG 412.
- BDAG 899.
- BDAG 1001.
- The Greek verb bradunō. "Slowness" or "slackness" is the noun bradutēs.
- BDAG 612.
- BDAG 641.
- "Lives" (NIV, NRSV) or "conversation" (KJV) is the Greek noun anastrophē, "conduct expressed according to certain principles, way of life, conduct, behavior" (BDAG 73.)
- "Look forward to" (NIV, cf. KJV) or "waiting for" (NRSV) is the Greek verb prosdokaō, used both here and in verses 13 and 14. It means "to give thought to something that is viewed as lying in the future, wait for, look for, expect" (BDAG 877).
- BDAG 412-413. "Godly / godliness" (eusebia) is one of Peter's favorite words in this letter, found in 2 Peter 1:3, 6; 2:9; and the negative in 3:7.
- BDAG 937-938.
- Green 153.
- "Home" (NIV), "at home" (NRSV), and "dwelleth" (KJV) is the Greek verb katoikeō, "live, dwell, reside, settle (down)" (BDAG 534).
- BDAG 939.
- Green 161.
- Green 163, note 1.
- BDAG 945.
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- Lamb of God
- Listening for God's Voice
- Lord's Supper
- Luke's Gospel
- Moses the Reluctant Leader
- Names and Titles of God
- Names and Titles of Jesus
- Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
- Resurrection and Easter Faith
- Sermon on the Mount
- Seven Last Words of Christ