References and Abbreviations


Francis Brown, S.R. Driver, and Charles A. Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Clarendon Press, 1907)

Cleave, Student Map

Richard Cleave, The Student Map Manual (Zondervan, 1980).


Bill T. Arnold and H.G.M. Williamson (editors), Dictionary of the Old Testament: Historical Books (InterVarsity Press, 2005)


English Standard Version (Crossway, 2001)


J. Gordon Harris, Cheryl A. Brown, and Michael S. Moore, Joshua, Judges, Ruth (New International Biblical Commentary; Hendrickson/Paternoster, 2000)

Hess (Tyndale)

Richard S. Hess, Joshua: An Introduction and Commentary (Tyndale Old Testament Commentaries; (InterVarsity Press, 1996)

Hess (Zondervan)

Richard S. Hess, Joshua, Judges and Ruth (Zondervan Illustrated Bible Background Commentary series, John H. Walton, general editor; Joshua, © 2009; Zondervan, ePub edition, Jan 2016).


William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, based on the Lexical work of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans / Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1988)


K.A. Kitchen, On the Reliability of the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 2003)


Geoffrey W. Bromiley (general editor), The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia (Eerdmans, 1979-1988; revised from the 1915 edition)


King James Version


New International Version


New Revised Standard Version


R. Laird Harris, Gleason L. Archer, Jr., and Bruce K. Waltke, (editors), Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament (2 volumes, Moody Press, 1980)


Marten H. Woudstra, Book of Joshua (New International Commentary on the Old Testament; Eerdmans, 1984)

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