4. God's Final Victory: Isaiah's Apocalypse (Isaiah 24-27)


Audio (26:08)

Albrecht Dü
rer, 'Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse' (1498), woodcut.
Albrecht Dü rer, "Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse" (1498), woodcut.

Several times in the Bible we see major prophecies of the Last Days.

  • Daniel and Revelation contain a number of apocalyptic prophecies, rich in symbolism.
  • Jesus taught about the Last Days during the final week of his ministry (Matthew 24-25; Mark 13; and Luke 21:5-36).
  • Paul has a few scattered references to this period (1 Corinthians 15; 1 Thessalonians 4; 2 Thessalonians 2; etc.). So does Peter (2 Peter 3) and Jude.
  • The Prophets contain many prophecies about this period (for example, Joel 2) -- including many in Isaiah itself.

Here in Isaiah 24-27 we see a collection of prophecies that are heavily eschatological, though lacking the symbolic figures you see in Daniel and Revelation (also called "The Apocalypse"). These prophecies seem to be a mixture of poems and songs, "rather like a cantata."[114] These chapters are often called "Isaiah's Apocalypse" (from the Greek word apokalypsis, "uncovering, revelation, disclosure" of something heretofore hidden).

If you're familiar with the New Testament, as you read these chapters you'll notice a number of verses and figures that form the basis for the eschatology further developed by Jesus, Paul, and the Book of Revelation.

Devastation of the Earth (24)

The first prophecy "begins badly" for humankind. Now the prophet turns from oracles against individual nations to a judgment of the whole rebellious earth. The judgment is utter destruction.

"See, the LORD is going to lay waste[115] the earth and devastate[116] it;
he will ruin[117] its face and scatter[118] its inhabitants." (24:1)

We see a bit of the totality of this destruction in 2 Peter, resulting in a new heaven and a new earth.

"The present heavens and earth are reserved for fire, being kept for the day of judgment and destruction of ungodly men.... But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything in it will be laid bare.... That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat. But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, the home of righteousness."
(2 Peter 3: 7, 10, 12b-13)

The reason for this destruction is sin and rebellion against God. The Gentiles are guilty before God, of course (Romans 1-2), but so is the covenant people to whom Yahweh revealed his law on Mount Sinai. Covenants come with curses to those who break them, as is seen in verse 6.

"5 The earth is defiled[119] by its people;
they have disobeyed the laws,
violated the statutes
and broken the everlasting covenant.
6 Therefore a curse consumes the earth;
its people must bear their guilt.
Therefore earth's inhabitants are burned up,[120]
and very few are left." (24:5-6)

The city -- here the world city, the representative of civilization -- is destroyed in all its urban sophistication and pride.

"The ruined city lies desolate;
the entrance to every house is barred....
The city is left in ruins,
its gate is battered to pieces." (24:10, 12)

While feasting and celebration of people on earth will cease (24:7-13), there will be celebration of God's righteous judgments (24:14-16a).

Notice that the judgment will not be just of humans, but of evil spiritual powers arrayed against God,[121] the principalities and powers.

"21 In that day the LORD will punish the powers in the heavens above
and the kings on the earth below.
22 They will be herded together like prisoners bound in a dungeon;
they will be shut up in prison and be punished[122] after many days."(24:21-22)

The New Testament refers to these armies of heaven that will be overcome by the Messiah (Revelation 17:14; 19:19), as well as the imprisonment of fallen angels awaiting the final judgment.

"And the angels who did not keep their positions of authority but abandoned their own home -- these he has kept in darkness, bound with everlasting chains for judgment on the great Day." (Jude 6; also Revelation 20:1-3; 2 Peter 2:4)

On that final Day of the Lord, even the heavenly bodies will be disrupted (Revelation 6:12; Matthew 24:29, quoting Isaiah 13:10; 34:4) as the Lord confirms his reign. The King has come!

"The moon will be abashed, the sun ashamed;
for the LORD Almighty will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem,
and before its elders, gloriously." (24:23)

Q1. (Isaiah 24) What is the reason that Yahweh will devastate the earth (24:5-6)?  Why do we feel so threatened by this kind of prophecy?  Why is this kind of prophecy important to forming faithful disciples who "fear the Lord"? In what way does the glitter and glory of man (1 John 2:15-17) contradict this kind of prophecy?
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A Song of Praise (25)

Now Isaiah introduces a psalm of praise to Yahweh that recounts the greatness of his reign, along with promises of victory over death that ripple through the New Testament.

"O LORD, you are my God;
I will exalt you and praise your name,
for in perfect faithfulness you have done marvelous things,
things planned long ago." (25:1)

Yahweh has not only destroyed the proud and wicked, he has aided the poor, those who cannot help themselves.

"You have been a refuge for the poor,
a refuge for the needy in his distress,
a shelter from the storm
and a shade from the heat." (25:4)

The images in this verse inspired Vernon J. Charlesworth's great hymn, "A Shelter in the Time of Storm."[123]

Verses 6 through 8 contain a prophecy of the great feast of the Last Day.

"On this mountain the LORD Almighty will prepare
a feast of rich food for all peoples,
a banquet of aged wine --
the best of meats and the finest of wines." (25:6)

"This mountain" doubtless refers to the New Jerusalem, as it did earlier in Isaiah (2:2)

The great banquet that Isaiah foresees is referred to many times in the New Testament:

"Blessed is the man who will eat at the feast[124] in the kingdom of God." (Luke 14:15)

"I say to you that many will come from the east and the west, and will take their places at the feast with Abraham, Isaac and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven." (Matthew 8:11)

"I tell you, I will not drink of this fruit of the vine from now on until that day when I drink it anew with you in my Father's kingdom." (Matthew 26:29)

"I confer on you a kingdom, just as my Father conferred one on me, so that you may eat and drink at my table in my kingdom and sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." (Luke 22:29-30)

"Here I am! I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in and eat with him, and he with me." (Revelation 3:20)

"Blessed are those who are invited to the wedding supper of the Lamb!" (Revelation 19:9)

Q2. (Isaiah 25:6-8) Obviously this "feast of rich food for all peoples" is a symbol of something more than just good food. What does this theme represent in Isaiah and the New Testament? What does it promise about the Last Days?
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Up to now, death has been the lot of us all. But in that final day, the "last enemy" (1 Corinthians 15:26), death, will be destroyed, and the shroud of death removed.

"7 On this mountain he will destroy the shroud[125] that enfolds all peoples,
the sheet[126] that covers all nations;
8 he will swallow up death forever."(25:7-8)

Paul quotes this and a passage from Hosea in 1 Corinthians 15:54-55 -- "Death has been swallowed up in victory." Hosea foresaw this end to death as well.

"I will ransom them from the power of the grave;
I will redeem them from death.
Where, O death, are your plagues?
Where, O grave, is your destruction?" (Hosea 13:14)

Isaiah continues his promise of deliverance from death:

"The Sovereign LORD will wipe away the tears from all faces;
he will remove the disgrace of his people from all the earth.
The LORD has spoken." (25:7-8)

At funerals, the echo of this passage is often read from Revelation:

"He will wipe every tear from their eyes.
There will be no more death or mourning or crying or pain,
for the old order of things has passed away." (Revelation 21:4)

In a moment, we'll see the wonderful promise of resurrection (Isaiah 26:19). Isaiah 25 concludes with prophecy of victory over one of Judah's traditional enemies, Moab (25:2-12).

Q3. (Isaiah 25:7) Why does the promise that "he will swallow up death forever" provide such comfort to us when we grieve the death of loved ones? When we contemplate our own death? What will we experience instead of death when Christ comes?
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Another Song of Praise (26)

Here is another joyous, expectant prophecy of the Last Days:

"In that day this song will be sung in the land of Judah" (26:1).

This is a song of two cities that represent the righteous and the unrighteous, the faithful and the unbelieving.

  1. The City of God (26:1-4), the New Jerusalem, and
  2. The City of Man (26:5-6), the "lofty city" that symbolizes the world in its rebellion against God.

In the City of God there is perfect peace because of Yahweh's strength.

"We have a strong city;
God makes salvation its walls and ramparts." (26:1)

No doubt this is the future city where "the LORD Almighty will reign on Mount Zion and in Jerusalem, and before its elders, gloriously" (24:23), the New Jerusalem (Revelation 3:12; 21:2). The people who entered the gates of the old Jerusalem are now "the nation that keeps faith" (26:2). The prophet declares the triumph of this trust.

Perfect Peace (26:3-4)

"3 You will keep in perfect peace[127] him whose mind[128] is steadfast,
because he trusts in you.
4 Trust in the LORD forever,
for the LORD, the LORD, is the Rock eternal." (26:3-4)

"Steadfast" (NIV, NRSV), "stayed" (KJV) is sāmak, "lean, lay, rest, support." The primary idea of the root is "to lean upon."[129] This brings to mind a chorus from the 1970s:

"I'm learning to lean, learning to lean,
Learning to lean on Jesus.
Finding more power than I'd ever dreamed,
I'm learning to lean on Jesus."[130]

There is also a wonderful Negro spiritual based on this verse:

"I'm a-walkin'and a-talkin'with my mind stayed on Jesus...."

Both Jesus (Matthew 6:25-34) and Paul (Philippians 4:4-9) taught about how to find peace in the midst of anxiety. Here, Isaiah teaches us about the peace of the mind that is constantly leaning, letting someone else carry the weight. It is an attitude, a practice of trust. The result is perfect peace because "the Rock[131] eternal[132]" anchors your life. He is solid. The weight of your burdens is light to him.

Q4. (Isaiah 26:3-4) According to this verse, what is the key to perfect peace? What happens when we get distracted from trusting in the Lord? Why is the Lord called the "Rock eternal"?
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Yahweh Humbles the City of Man (26:6-7)

Now the prophet contrasts the unrighteous city with the righteous. Yahweh humbles the "lofty city" and levels it. Those who were its victims join in destroying it.

"Feet trample it down --
the feet of the oppressed,
the footsteps of the poor." (26:6)

But the way of the righteous is level and smooth (26:7). They love God. They long for him to act, to bring justice.

"8 Yes, LORD, walking in the way of your laws,
we wait for you;
your name and renown are the desire of our hearts.
9 My soul yearns for you in the night;
in the morning my spirit longs for you." (26:8-9a)

But even though God is merciful to the unrighteous, they don't seem to profit from it.

"Though grace[133] is shown to the wicked,
they do not learn righteousness;
even in a land of uprightness they go on doing evil
and regard not the majesty of the LORD." (26:10)

But the righteous give honor to Yahweh. Though they have learned painful lessons, they now walk in his ways.

"12 LORD, you establish peace for us;
all that we have accomplished you have done for us.
13 O LORD, our God, other lords besides you have ruled over us,
but your name alone do we honor." (26:12-13)

God has enlarged his influence, but the righteous realize that they have failed to bring salvation to the world (26:16-18). They have fallen short of their intended destiny, to be a "light to the nations" (42:6; 49:6; 61:4; 60:3).

A Promise of Resurrection in the Last Days (26:19-21)

But God has not failed. This song closes with a remarkable declaration of bodily resurrection from the dead in the Last Days. Man's efforts are weak and paltry, but God's work is mighty.

"But your dead will live;
their bodies will rise.
You who dwell in the dust, wake up and shout for joy.
Your dew is like the dew of the morning;
the earth will give birth to her dead." (26:19)

This resurrection won't come immediately. There will be mighty judgment first.

"Go, my people, enter your rooms and shut the doors behind you;
hide yourselves for a little while until his wrath has passed by." (26:20)

For the most part, the Old Testament view of death was pretty grim -- death was followed by a shadowy existence in Sheol, the underworld. But here and there we see the hope of life beyond the grave. Isaiah 26:19 is one of the clearest of these, but there are others:

"Come, let us return to the LORD.
He has torn us to pieces but he will heal us;
he has injured us but he will bind up our wounds.
After two days he will revive us;
on the third day he will restore us,
that we may live in his presence." (Hosea 6:1-2)

"I will ransom them from the power of the grave;
I will redeem them from death.
Where, O death, are your plagues?
Where, O grave, is your destruction?" (Hosea 13:14)

Ezekiel's prophecy of the Valley of Dry Bones also hints at resurrection (Ezekiel 37:1-14).

"So I prophesied as he commanded me, and breath entered them;
they came to life and stood up on their feet -- a vast army." (Ezekiel 37:10)

Daniel sees this resurrection clearly.

"Multitudes who sleep in the dust of the earth will awake: some to everlasting life, others to shame and everlasting contempt. Those who are wise will shine like the brightness of the heavens, and those who lead many to righteousness, like the stars for ever and ever." (Daniel 12:2-3)

Finally, there is Job's amazing vision of resurrection.

"I know that my Redeemer lives,
and that in the end he will stand upon the earth.
And after my skin has been destroyed,
yet in my flesh I will see God;
I myself will see him with my own eyes --
I, and not another.
How my heart yearns within me!" (Job 19:25-27)

Job's heart yearns; how much more should we become excited and expectant as we see the Day approaching. Come soon, Lord Jesus!

Prior to this resurrection, however, there will be terrible judgment upon the earth -- as so graphically spelled out in the Book of Revelation. The Lord speaks through the prophet:

20 Go, my people, enter your rooms
and shut the doors behind you;
hide yourselves for a little while until his wrath has passed by.
21 See, the LORD is coming out of his dwelling
to punish the people of the earth for their sins." (26:20-21a)

Q5. (Isaiah 26:19) Does this passage actually teach a bodily resurrection? What does it teach us about resurrection? When will this resurrection take place, according to the New Testament?
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Deliverance of Israel (27)

The final song in this series of prophecies shifts the focus to Israel's deliverance on the Day of the Lord. This song is marked by four occurrences of the phrase "in that day."

  1. "In that day the Lord will punish ... Leviathan." (27:1)
  2. "In that day -- sing about a fruitful vineyard...." (27:2-11)
  3. "In that day the Lord will thresh .... and you, O Israelites, will be gathered up one by one...." (27:12)
  4. "And in that day a great trumpet will sound and those who were ... exiled ... will come and worship." (27:13)

The Slaying of Leviathan (27:1)

"In that day, the LORD will punish with his sword,
his fierce, great and powerful sword,
Leviathan the gliding serpent,
Leviathan the coiling serpent;
he will slay the monster of the sea." (27:1)

What is this Leviathan? It is a mythical sea monster and symbol of evil. In the pagan Ugaritic myths, Lotan, the adversary of Baal and Anath, seems to be the equivalent of Old Testament Leviathan. Here is an interesting parallel from a Ugaritic cuneiform text.

"When you smote Lotan the fleeing serpent,
you made an end of the twisting serpent,
the mighty one of the seven heads."[134]

This doesn't mean that Isaiah adopts the pagan mythology of Israel's neighbors. Rather, he "intends it merely as a forceful poetic figure for the ultimate defeat of the power of the evil one at the end of the age."[135]

You see something similar in Revelation where Satan is depicted as the Great Dragon (Revelation 12:9) and the Antichrist by the Beast Coming out of the Sea (Revelation 13:1). Ultimately, the beast is captured by the Messiah and thrown into the lake of fire (Revelation 19:20), eventually to be followed by Satan himself (Revelation 20:10).

The Song of the Fruitful Vineyard (27:2-11)

"In that day --
Sing about a fruitful vineyard:
I, the LORD, watch over it;
I water it continually.
I guard it day and night so that no one may harm it." (27:2-3)

The vineyard, of course, represents God's people. Previously we saw the vineyard in Isaiah's song of the vineyard yielding only bad fruit (5:1-7). Israel and Judah are still in rebellion in 27:4-5. Defeated they go into exile, yet the Lord protects them and will bring them back.

"In days to come Jacob will take root,
Israel will bud and blossom
and fill all the world with fruit." (27:6)

In one sense, at least, this has been fulfilled in the community of Israel's Messiah, the Christian church, that, through its missionaries, has brought fruit to God in hundreds of millions of believers throughout the earth.

Indeed, God uses warfare and exile to get his people's attention and bring them back to himself.

"By warfare and exile you contend with her --
with his fierce blast he drives her out,
as on a day the east wind blows." (27:8)

But, at the time Isaiah's prophecy is given, Israel is still deep in idolatry.

"By this, then, will Jacob's guilt be atoned for,
and this will be the full fruitage of the removal of his sin:
When he makes all the altar stones to be like chalk stones crushed to pieces,
no Asherah poles or incense altars will be left standing." (Isaiah 27:9)

As yet, God's people are still rebellious and uncomprehending. Eventually, even Jerusalem will be taken and destroyed, its people taken into exile.

"For this is a people without understanding;
so their Maker has no compassion on them,
and their Creator shows them no favor." (27:11b)

The Day of the Trumpet Sound and God's Gathering (27:12-13)

But that is not the last word. The final verses in this song refer to the rapture and gathering of God's people when Christ returns.

"12 In that day the LORD will thresh from the flowing Euphrates to the Wadi of Egypt,
and you, O Israelites, will be gathered up one by one.
13 And in that day a great trumpet will sound.
Those who were perishing in Assyria and those who were exiled in Egypt
will come and worship the LORD on the holy mountain in Jerusalem." (27:12-13)

Jesus prophesied this day as well:

"And he will send his angels with a loud trumpet call,
and they will gather his elect from the four winds,
from one end of the heavens to the other." (Matthew 24:31)

And surely, Isaiah's prophecies are part of the basis of Paul's conviction that the Jews will finally be saved (Romans 9-11, especially 11:25-26a).

Q6. (Isaiah 27:12-13) When Isaiah prophesies the gathering of all his people at the sound of a great trumpet call, to what New Testament event does this correspond?
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Prayer

Father, your judgments are awesome, but your future blessings are a joy to anticipate. I pray that you will help us keep our minds focused on you, and so enjoy your peace. We look forward to that Day when death will be swallowed up and our bodies will rise to meet you. Come soon, Lord Jesus! Amen.

Key Verses

This lesson contains a number of wonderful prophecies and encouragements.

"In that day the LORD will punish the powers in the heavens above
and the kings on the earth below.
They will be herded together like prisoners bound in a dungeon;
they will be shut up in prison and be punished after many days."(Isaiah 24:21-22)

"You have been a refuge for the poor,
a refuge for the needy in his distress,
a shelter from the storm
and a shade from the heat." (Isaiah 25:4)

"On this mountain the LORD Almighty will prepare
a feast of rich food for all peoples,
a banquet of aged wine --
the best of meats and the finest of wines." (Isaiah 25:6)

"On this mountain he will destroy the shroud that enfolds all peoples,
the sheet that covers all nations;
he will swallow up death forever.
The Sovereign LORD will wipe away the tears from all faces." (Isaiah 25:7-8a)

"You will keep in perfect peace him whose mind is steadfast,
because he trusts in you.
Trust in the LORD forever,
for the LORD, the LORD, is the Rock eternal." (26:3-4)

"Though grace is shown to the wicked,
they do not learn righteousness;
even in a land of uprightness they go on doing evil
and regard not the majesty of the LORD." (Isaiah 26:10)

"But your dead will live;
their bodies will rise.
You who dwell in the dust, wake up and shout for joy.
Your dew is like the dew of the morning;
the earth will give birth to her dead." (Isaiah 26:19)

"In that day the LORD will thresh from the flowing Euphrates to the Wadi of Egypt,
and you, O Israelites, will be gathered up one by one.
And in that day a great trumpet will sound.
Those who were perishing in Assyria and those who were exiled in Egypt
will come and worship the LORD on the holy mountain in Jerusalem." (Isaiah 27:12-13)

End Notes

[114] Motyer, Isaiah, p. 183.

[115] "Lay waste" (NIV, NRSV), "make empty" (KJV) is bāqaq, "empty, lay waste (land)" (BDB 132).

[116] "Devastate" (NIV), "make desolate" (NRSV), "make waste" (KJV) is bālaq, "waste, lay waste, destroy," similar to the Arabic word for "desert" (BDB 118).

[117] "Ruin" (NIV), "twist" (NRSV), "turn upside down" (KJV) is ʿāwâ , "bend, twist, distort." (TWOT #1577).

[118] "Scatter" is pāṣaṣ, "be dispersed, scatter" (TWOT #1745).

[119] "Defiled" (NIV, KJV), "polluted" (NRSV) is ḥānēp, "be defiled, polluted, profaned, corrupt." The word is used for the land being polluted by the sins of the people such as shedding innocent blood, immorality, pagan worship, etc. (Louis Goldberg, TWOT #696).

[120] "Burned" (NIV, KJV), "scorched" (RSV), "dwindled" (NRSV) in the Masoretic Hebrew text is ḥarar, "be burned, charred" (TWOT #756), "glow, burn" (Holladay, p. 118). The Qumran Scroll uses a slightly different root, which would yield a translation of "be diminished" (Young, Isaiah 2:159), as reflected in the NRSV translation "dwindled," producing synonymous parallelism in this verse.

[121] "Powers" (NIV), "host" (NRSV, KJV) in 24:21 is ṣābāʾ, "war, army, warfare" (BDB 838).

[122] "Be punished" (NIV, NRSV), "be visited" (KJV) is pāqad, "number, reckon, visit, punish, appoint.... " It is often a difficult word to translate appropriately. "The basic meaning is to exercise oversight over a subordinate, either in the form of inspecting or of taking action to cause a considerable change in the circumstances of the subordinate either for the better or for the worse" (TWOT #1802). This Niphal verb here is probably to be translated as "be called to account" (Holladay, p. 296). I don't see a justification for the NIV marginal alternative, "be released."

[123] "A Shelter in the Time of Storm," words: Vernon J. Charlesworth (c. 1880), music: Ira D. Sankey (c. 1885).

[124] This saying is followed by Jesus'Parable of the Great Banquet (Luke 14:15-24).

[125] "Shroud" (NIV, NRSV), "covering" (KJV) is lôt, "envelope, covering." (BDB 532), "covering" (Holladay, p. 174), which occurs only here, from the verb lûṭ, "wrap closely, tightly, enwrap, envelop"(BDB 532), which is the verb found in this verse.

[126] "Sheet" (NIV, NRSV), "vail" (KJV) is massēkâ , "woven stuff, web, especially as covering," here, "the web that is woven over all the nations," that is, "mourning-veil," symbolic of distress (BDB 652), "covering" (Holladay, p. 203), also at 28:20. It is derived from the verb nāsak, "intertwine, weave" (Holladay, p. 239), also found in this verse.

[127] "Perfect peace" is literally shālôm shālôm. In Hebrew, doubling a word is a way of intensifying it.

[128] "Mind" is yēṣer, "form, framing, purpose." Here Isaiah refers to "a steadfast purpose (or frame of mind)" (BDB 428).

[129] Sāmak, BDB 703; R.D. Patterson, TWOT #1514).

[130] "Learning to Lean," by John Stallings, © 1976, HeartWarming Music.

[131] "Rock" (NIV, KJV), "strength" (KJV) is ṣûr, "rock," referring to boulders or formations of stone and for the material which composes mountains (John E. Hartley, ṣûr, TWOT #1901a).

[132] "Eternal" (NIV), "everlasting" (NRSV, KJV) is ʿôlām, referring to existence into the distant future (Alan A. MacCrea, TWOT #1631a).

[133] "Show grace" (NIV), "show favor" (NRSV, KJV) is ḥānan, "be gracious; pity.... The verb ḥānan depicts a heartfelt response by someone who has something to give to one who has a need." (Edwin Yamauchi, ḥānan, TWOT #694).

[134] Cyrus H. Gordon, Ugaritic Textbook (Analecta Orientalia, 38, The Pontifical Biblical Institute (1965, 1967), Texts in Transliteration / Cuneiform Selections, Glossary / Indices), 67:1:1-3. Cited in Gordon P. Hugenberger, "Leviathan," ISBE 3:1-9.

[135] Gordon P. Hugenberger, "Leviathan," ISBE 3:1-9.


Copyright © 1985-2017, Ralph F. Wilson. <pastor@joyfulheart.com> All rights reserved. A single copy of this article is free. Do not put this on a website. See legal, copyright, and reprint information.

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