Apostle Paul: Passionate Discipleship
Beginning the Journey (for new Christians).
1, 2, and 3 John
1 & 2 Thessalonians
1 & 2 Timothy
2 Peter, Jude
7 Last Words of Christ
Christ Powered Life (Rom 5-8)
David, Life of
Glorious Kingdom, The
Holy Spirit, Disciple's Guide
Jesus and the Kingdom
Lamb of God
Listening for God's Voice
Names of God
Names of Jesus
Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
Sermon on the Mount
#2. God's Presence in the Church (Ephesians 2:11-22)by Dr. Ralph F. Wilson
Part of JesusWalk -- Vision for the Church
 Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called "uncircumcised" by those who call themselves "the circumcision" (that done in the body by the hands of men) --  remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world.  But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ.
 For he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility,  by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace,  and in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility.  He came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near.  For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit.
 Consequently, you are no longer foreigners and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household,  built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone.  In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord.  And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit.
So many verses, so little time! We're about to look at one of the most fascinating passages in Ephesians, but we'll be skipping pretty rapidly over the first two-thirds of it. I am including it for context, but I want to examine in detail verses 18-22 which bring us a wonderful picture of the church as a building, a temple, the dwelling place for God in the Spirit. So bear with me as I lay the groundwork rather quickly.
Once Separate from God's People (2:11-13)
Paul begins this section by describing the state of his Gentile Christian readers prior to their conversion. Maybe it describes your pre-Christian state, too.
"Therefore, remember that formerly you who are Gentiles by birth and called 'uncircumcised' by those who call themselves 'the circumcision' (that done in the body by the hands of men) -- remember that at that time you were separate from Christ, excluded from citizenship in Israel and foreigners to the covenants of the promise, without hope and without God in the world." (2:11-13)
Many-breasted "Earth Mother," life-size statue of Artemis of Ephesus. Larger image
Paul is writing to people who, not too long ago, were full-blown pagans, participants in mystery religions, adherents to the cult of Artemis (many-breasted "Earth Mother" goddess of fertility and childbirth), involved in magic and sorcery, and perhaps other religions. They were far from the monotheism of the Jewish people, far from a moral conscience informed by the Ten Commandments. They were moved by the passions of their society and, behind the scenes, the demonic influences upon that society. Paul describes them in verses 1 and 2:
"You were dead in your transgressions and sins, in which you used to live when you followed the ways of this world and of the ruler of the kingdom of the air, the spirit who is now at work in those who are disobedient." (2:1-2)
In verse 12, Paul points out five aspects of the Gentiles' pre-Christian condition:
- "Separate from Christ."  The Jews, at least, had the promise and expectation of a deliverer, the Messiah. The Gentiles had none.
- "Excluded from citizenship in Israel." "Excluded" (NIV) or "being aliens" (KJV, NRSV) is the Greek verb apallotrioo, "estrange, alienate." "Citizenship" (NIV, Greek politeia) is probably better rendered by "commonwealth" (KJV, NRSV), "a sociopolitical unit or body of citizens, state, people, body politic." The Gentiles were estranged from the nation or commonwealth of Israel, aliens to the people of God.
- "Foreigners to the covenants of promise." "Foreigners" (NIV) or "strangers" (KJV, NRSV) is the Greek adjective xenos, "strange, unfamiliar." Here it means "stranger, alien." With regard to the covenants through which God brought blessing to his people, they were strangers. They had no clue. They had no covenant with God at all.
- "Without hope." How sad, to have no hope in God. No promises to trust in. No hope of God's rescue or salvation or intervention. No long-term future.
- "Without God in the world." "Without God" is the Greek adjective atheos (from the same root as our word "atheist"), "pertaining to being without a relationship to God, without God" as in our passage. The word is also used of those who deny God. Can you imagine what it must be like to be "without God"? Maybe you've felt like that -- alone, all by yourself in a scary world.
Made the Two into One Making Peace (2:13-15)
This next passage deals with the relationship of Christians to the Law. However, for this study we'll just read it, so we can spend time on the later verses in our passage.
"But now in Christ Jesus you who once were far away have been brought near through the blood of Christ. "For he himself is our peace, who has made the two one and has destroyed the barrier, the dividing wall of hostility, by abolishing in his flesh the law with its commandments and regulations. His purpose was to create in himself one new man out of the two, thus making peace." (2:13-15)
The Law was a barrier that caused hostility between Jew and Gentile. Christ, the Prince of Peace, becomes our peace, and speaks peace to us. Then, in himself, he unites Gentile and Jewish believers into a single new Humanity. "Man" is the Greek noun anthropos, which is the generic word for human, and does not indicate human gender, either masculine or feminine. Our word "anthropology" comes from this root. The new man, the new humanity, however, is Christ himself, and all of us are incorporated into his "body." The result is peace, concord, well-being -- something of the flavor of the Hebrew shalom which Paul certainly has in his head.
"... And in this one body to reconcile both of them to God through the cross, by which he put to death their hostility. He came and preached peace to you who were far away and peace to those who were near. For through him we both have access to the Father by one Spirit." (2:16-18)
"Reconcile" comes from a root that means "to change, to exchange," that is, rather than hostility where estranged parties avoid communication with each other, reconciled parties now engage in mutual dialog and social intercourse. The Greek verb apokatallasso is a compound verb with a couple of prepositions that add extra emphasis and intensity to the meaning.
Because we are reconciled to God, with whom we didn't previously have "diplomatic relations," now we have access. I love this word! "Access" is the Greek noun prosagoge, "a way of approach, access," from the verb prosago, "bring into someone's presence, come near, approach."
Remember the story of Queen Esther, who couldn't enter the King's presence without permission, upon penalty of death (Esther 4:11)? We have ready access before the God of gods. We can come at any time, day or night. We have ultimate access!
"Let us therefore approach the throne of grace with boldness, so that we may receive mercy and find grace to help in time of need." (Hebrews 4:16, NRSV)
Notice the basis of our access -- "in" or "by" (Greek preposition en) "one Spirit" (2:18). Remember the Spirit's role, because we encounter the Spirit again in 2:22.
Notice to whom we have access -- "the Father" (2:18). We aren't left to deal with lesser beings, but have the privilege of direct access to the King of kings and Lord of lords himself!
And notice who it is who grants this access, who opens the door -- Jesus Christ. Though he is "the mediator between God and humankind (anthropos)" (1 Timothy 2:5; NRSV), he is not some kind of spiritual bridge through which all messages and prayers must pass. Rather, he ushers into the presence of "the Father" -- his Father -- and lets us sit there and talk to the Father about whatever is troubling us. Jesus has made peace and brought us to God.
Now let me summarize. We, as individuals and, corporately, as the church have wonderful privileges:
- Peace and reconciliation with God
- Access to the Father
Now let's consider the privileges spelled out in the next verse:
"Consequently, you are no longer foreigners (xenos) and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household...." (2:19)
Rather than being aliens and non-citizens, we are now fellow citizens. In the United States most of us were born citizens and take citizenship for granted. We are humbled by immigrants from other lands who aspire to be Americans and are overjoyed on the day when they take the oath of allegiance and become fellow-citizens. Being a citizen was also a big deal in Paul's day. Citizenship wasn't granted to people who were residents, even those who had been born in a country. It was a special status granted only to some. As you follow Paul's life you can see some of the protections that citizenship afforded him under the Roman legal system of the time. As a citizen he had rights.
Notice that we are "fellow citizens with God's people" (NIV) -- "the saints" (KJV, NRSV). The Greek word used here is hagios, "pertaining to being dedicated or consecrated to the service of God, holy, sacred," here, of people, "holy ones." Previously only Jews had the status of God's holy people. Now it is granted to Gentile believers as well.
It is important to observe that we don't become independent of the Jews, but share in the privileges they already had as God's people. In Romans, Paul uses the analogy of the olive tree into which the Gentile Christians are grafted (Romans 11:16-21), and reminds Gentiles that the tree is Israel.
In addition to being fellow citizens, we are now members of God's house.
"Consequently, you are no longer foreigners (xenos) and aliens, but fellow citizens with God's people and members of God's household...." (2:19)
"House" (a building) and "household" can all be referenced by the same Greek word, oikos, "house." This is important because at this point Paul begins an analogy of a building, which culminates in being the grandest house of all, a temple.
The analogy starts with our privileges -- being fellow citizens with the saints, and now being members of the house(hold) of God. "Members of the household" (NIV, NRSV) is the Greek noun oikeios, "persons who are related by kinship or circumstances and form a closely knit group, members of a household." Paul also uses the word in Galatians 6:10, "the household of faith" (KJV) or "the family of believers" (NIV).
We are not just house guests or house servants, dear friends, we have been adopted and are now family members, children of the Father. Wow!
The Church is a family. You may be able to pick your friends, but you can't pick your family. You just are assigned them -- and they you! The church is not a exclusive club of those who are raised like you are, or have a certain level of education, or live in the right neighborhood, or come from a particular race or social class. Your brothers and sisters, some of them, have come from hard backgrounds. Some are wounded. Some are hurting. Some are healing. Some are powerful in the Spirit. You don't choose them but you must love them. Why? Because they have one thing in common. They all trust in Jesus Christ and have been chosen, elected, by the Father to be his family.
You see, "family" is not a comfortable, clubby concept, "us four, no more." It is the Father's family, and he teaches love as the prime directive within his household. We learn to love each other in the family, and, so doing, create a microcosm of God's love in an imperfect world. We are family and are joined to each other by very strong bonds.
Having begun with the concept of household, family, Paul's thought now moves to the other meaning of "house" -- building.
"....Built on the foundation of the apostles and prophets, with Christ Jesus himself as the chief cornerstone. In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord." (2:20-21)
This structure has several important parts:
The foundationis the apostles and prophets. The teaching of the prophets to the Old Covenant congregation and the teaching of the apostles to the New Covenant congregation provide a firm foundation. These foundation people are no longer living, but their words are preserved for us in Scripture. That is why we value Scripture so highly. (The idea of foundation is used figuratively also in 1 Corinthians 3:10-12; Romans 15:20; 1 Timothy 6:19; 2 Timothy 2:19; and Hebrews 6:1).
The cornerstone. Jesus is part of that foundation, too. He is the one who called the apostles, taught them, and commissioned them to pass on his message to us. He is also the Redeemer who brought us salvation. Here he is referred to as the "chief cornerstone" (akrogoniaios), which means "lying at the extreme corner, cornerstone," sometimes interpreted as the "capstone." It is used of Christ in our passage and also in 1 Peter 2:6, a reference to Isaiah 28:16:
"See, I lay a stone in Zion,
a tested stone,
a precious cornerstone for a sure foundation;
the one who trusts will never be dismayed."
Building.The "building" (NIV, KJV) or "structure" (NRSV) is the Greek noun oikodome, "building, edifice." You and I and billions of Christians living and dead -- we are the building (also mentioned in 1 Corinthians 3:9 and 2 Corinthians 5:1)
Fasteners."Joined together" (NIV, NRSV) or "fitly framed together" (KJV) is the Greek verb sunarmologeo, "to join together so as to form a coherent entity, fit/join together," used here and in Ephesians 4:16, where it refers to the church as a body that is joined together. Before bolts and nails, wooden structures were held together by carefully constructed joints. The carpenter would chisel a slot or notch in one beam engineered perfectly to fit another beam that would join to it, locking in place with a peg or dowel. In fine stone buildings, stones were often cut and fashioned at the quarry to fit exactly with the stones that would be next to them in order to keep the structure from coming apart in case of an earthquake. (The Jordan River is a Rift Valley where plates from two continents join together. Consequently, Israel is the site of many earthquakes.)
And now Paul comes to you and me, and reveals a key divine purpose for both the universal Church and each local congregation:
"And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit." (2:22)
Paul continues the construction analogy. "Built together" (NIV) is the Greek compound verb sunoikodomeo, "to build up or construct of various parts, build up (together)." You and I are not built for individual devotion and churchless lives as Lone Ranger Christians. We are to be built together with others.
But, Lord, some of those people in the church are hard people. Lord, leave me alone. I don't want to be part of a building. Loving them is ... too difficult. Dear friends, being part of a church congregation -- being built into it with others -- is not an option for us, it is God's plan for us. We are living stones (1 Peter 2:5), living 2x4s, joined to others to create something beyond ourselves. Something not for our benefit, but God's. God desires us to be part of a holy temple -- his holy temple -- for his purposes.
The answer brings me to a sense of reverence, of holy awe. This verse tells us that God wants you and me be part of a Temple in which God himself desires to dwell. The phrase "dwelling in which God lives" (NIV), "dwelling place" (NRSV), or "habitation" (KJV) is the Greek noun katoiketerion, "dwelling(-place)," from the noun katoicheo, to live, dwell, reside, inhabit."
Do you know how God dwelt in the tabernacle in the wilderness (Exodus 40:34-36) and in Solomon's Temple (1 Chronicles 7:1-2)? With great power and glory. No wonder Paul's doxology says, "To him be glory in the church!" (Ephesians 3:21)
But we are not outside the Temple wondering what it's like to know this God and experience his presence. We are part of the Temple itself, onlookers and participants in what God is doing in his congregations. You and I, with others in our communies, actually form a Temple, a congregation, for God to dwell in.
Is your congregation a part of the Temple? No your church is the Temple of God in microcosm, manifested in your community. It doesn't matter whether you are part of a large "successful" congregation or a small "struggling" one. Jesus is present where even two or three are gathered together in his name (Matthew 18:20). When 20 or 30 gather together in his name, his power and presence is mighty.Or 200 or 300, or 2000 or 3000, or even more. Come, be part of the holy Temple in which God will dwell by his Spirit. It is God's desire for you and your destiny in God.
Churches, Temples of God's dwelling, are outposts of God's glory and presence and power in every community all over the world. Without you and others like you forming the Temple, the church is absent part of God's people. But when you and others make a commitment to become part of the Temple, the congregation, then God himself comes to dwell in that congregation and make himself known.
Father, let us see you in your church with your full presence and glory. Give your church a deep hunger for the real presence of God, so that we are not satisfied with our programmed substitutes. Build us into your Temple. Forgive us and renew us, we pray. In Jesus' name. Amen.
"In him the whole building is joined together and rises to become a holy temple in the Lord. And in him you too are being built together to become a dwelling in which God lives by his Spirit." (Ephesians 2:21-22)
- (Ephesians 2:16-18) Why is "access to the Father" important? In what way is access to the Father similar having diplomatic relations? How did we obtain this access? Extra credit: How does this access fulfill the two greatest commandments (Matthew 22:36-40) and God's purpose for us?
- (Ephesians 2:19a) If we are fellow-citizens with the Jewish believers, what are we citizens of? In what sense are we "holy" or "saints"?
- (Ephesians 2:19b) What does the phrase "members of God's household" tell us about the nature of the Church and about the nature of God? What does it tell us about the kind of fellowship that is appropriate in the local congregation? What are the implications for those Christians who aren't faithful to gather with the local congregation?
- (Ephesians 2:20-21) How do "the apostles and prophets" contribute to your life today? To the life of your congregation? In what way should Jesus Christ serve as a cornerstone to your congregation? In what sense does a congregation "grow" (KJV, NRSV) or "rise" (NIV) into a holy temple in the Lord? In what way does growth occur to bring this about?
- (Ephesians 2:22) In what ways should your congregation be "a dwelling place for God in the Spirit"? According to verse 22, how do the members of the congregation help bring this about? What shape should this take in your own life? In the life of your own congregation?
Standard abbreviations are found on the references page. http://www.jesuswalk.com/church/refs.htm
- BDAG 276-277. We get our word "ethnic" from the Greek words ethnos, ethnikos.
- William S. LaSor, "Artemis," ISBE 1:306-308.
- "Separate" (NIV) or "without" (KJV, NRSV) is the Greek adverb choris, "pertaining to occurring separately or being separate, separately, apart, by itself." Here it means "separated from someone, far from someone, without someone" (BDAG 1095).
- BDAG 96.
- BDAG 845. Our word "political" comes from a common root.
- BDAG 684. Our word "xenophobic," fear of foreigners, comes from this root.
- BDAG 24. Our word "atheist" is formed from two words, a "without, not" + theos, "God."
- BDAG 81-82.
- "Peace" is the Greek noun eirene, "a state of concord, peace, harmony." According to the prophets, peace will be an essential characteristic of the messianic kingdom, so in Christian thought, peace is nearly synonymous with "messianic salvation" (BDAG 287-288.)
- BDAG 112; Barth, 1:265.
- BDAG 875-876.
- "Aliens" (NIV, NRSV) or "foreigners" (KJV) is the Greek adjective paroikos, "pertaining to being a resident alien, stranger, alien, one who lives in a place that is not one's home" (BDAG 779). "Fellow citizens" (NIV, KJV) or "citizens" (NRSV) is the Greek compound noun sumpolites, "fellow-citizen, compatriot" (BDAG 959).
- BDAG 10-11.
- BDAG 694.
- BDAG 39-40.
- BDAG 696-697.
- BDAG 966.
- BDAG 974.
- BDAG 534-535.
In-depth Bible study books
You can purchase one of Dr. Wilson's complete Bible studies in PDF, Kindle, or paperback format.
- Apostle Paul: Passionate Discipleship
- Disciple's Guide to the Holy Spirit
- 1, 2, and 3 John
- 1 Peter
- 2 Peter & Jude
- 1 & 2 Thessalonians
- 1 & 2 Timothy
- 1 Corinthians
- 2 Corinthians
- Abraham, Faith of
- Christ Powered Life (Romans 5-8)
- Christmas Incarnation
- Colossians and Philemon
- David, Life of
- Glorious Kingdom, The
- Great Prayers of the Bible
- Jacob, Life of
- Jesus and the Kingdom of God
- JesusWalk: Beginning the Journey
- John's Gospel
- Lamb of God
- Listening for God's Voice
- Lord's Supper
- Luke's Gospel
- Moses the Reluctant Leader
- Names and Titles of God
- Names and Titles of Jesus
- Rebuild & Renew: Post-Exilic Books
- Resurrection and Easter Faith
- Sermon on the Mount
- Seven Last Words of Christ